July 2021


Bryan Holtzman; Kate Ackerman

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SSE #44

The Older Athlete: Exercise in Hot Environments

Adequate fluid intake before, during and after exercise in hot conditions should be emphasized for older exercisers. Aerobic fitness, acclimation and hydration status are important factors to consider when exercising in the heat.

W. Larry Kenney, Ph.D.

April 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #49

Children's Responses to Exercise in Hot Climates: Implications for Performance and Health

Children's physiologic responses to exercise are generally similar to those of adults, but there are several ageand maturation-related differences in their responses. For example, children respond to the combined stresses of exercise and climatic heat differently than do adults (Table 1).\r\n\r\n\r\n

SSE #51

Children's Responses to Exercise in Cold Climates: Health Implications

Exercise and climatic heat both induce heat stress. Their synergistic effect, when excessive, may impair physical and cognitive performance, cause hyperthermia, and be detrimental to a child's well-being and health. In contrast, when the body is exposed to a cold environment, exercise-induced thermogenesis will help to prevent excessive body cooling. Therefore, hypothermia (core body temperature of 35o C or less) is more likely to occur during rest than during exercise.

Oded Bar-Or, M.D.

May 2006

Topics: Athlete Health, Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #86

Heat Stroke in Sports: Causes, Prevention and Treatment

Heat stroke is typically caused by a combination of environmental, physical, and behavioral factors. Dr. Eichner summarizes the causes that contribute to this illness, its treatment, and also the preventive measures to protect the athletes. Heat stroke is very serious. Preventing this illness involves acclimation, hydration, pacing, cooling and vigilance. It is important to recognize its early symptoms and to provide fast and effective treatment. Cooling the athlete is the first priority before transporting to the emergency room. This can save lives.

E. Randy Eichner, M.D.

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #88

Hyponatremia in Athletes

Hyponatremia is a rare disorder that results from a combination of abnormal water retention and/or sodium loss. Water retention can occur from excessive water retention by the kidneys or from drinking too much water. A combination of excessive drinking and salt loss reduces plasma sodium concentration. This can prompt a cascade of events that might result in a rapid and dangerous swelling of the brain that could cause seizures, coma, and even death.

The risk of hyponatremia can be reduced by making certain that fluid intake does not exceed sweat loss and by ingesting sodium containing beverages or foods to help replace the sodium lost in sweat.

Bob Murray, John Stofan, E. Randy Eichner

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #92

Dietary Water and Sodium Requirements For Active Adults

Optimal hydration requires the replacement of water and electrolytes based on individual needs. Physically active people who lose more than 2 liters of sweat in a day should make sure they are ingesting adequate amounts of water and salt.

W. Larry Kenney, Ph.D., FACSM

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #97

Hydration Assessment of Athletes

This article reviews several clinical hydration assessment techniques for\r\ndetecting changes in hydration status, provides criteria for the most\r\naccurate and reliable methods, and offers application guidance for athletes\r\nand coaches. The most common assessment techniques include total body\r\nwater, plasma osmolality, urine osmolality and body mass. Plasma\r\nosmolality\r\nand total body water measurements are the best ways to assess fluid needs\r\nbut are technically difficult and not very practical. A more practical way\r\nfor athletes to monitor fluid needs is to 1) assess day-to-day body weight,\r\n2) monitor urine frequency and color and 3) pay attention to thirst.\r\nMaintaining a stable body weight, frequent, pale urination and occasional\r\nthirst are all indications of good body fluid balance. While any one of\r\nthese can be a sufficient monitor, attention to all three will provide\r\nbetter assurance for hydration status.

Samuel N. Cheuvront, Ph.D., Michael N. Sawka, Ph.D. FACSM

October 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #111

Assessing Hydration in the Laboratory and Field

According to Eric Klinenberg’s book Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago, “the loss of human life in hot spells in summer exceeds that caused by all other weather events combined, including lightning, rain, floods, hurricanes and tornadoes” (Klinenberg, 2002).

Nina S. Stachenfeld, PhD

February 2013

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #128

Orlando Laitano, José Luiz Runco and Lindsay Baker

June 2014

Topics: Training & Performance, Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #141

William M. Adams and Douglas J. Casa

April 2015

Topics: Sport Specific, Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #152

Michael N. Sawka, Samuel N. Cheuvront, and Robert W. Kenefick

January 2016

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation, Training & Performance

SSE #153

SSE #192

Yasuki Sekiguchi; Luke N. Belval; Rebecca L. Stearns; Douglas J. Casa; Yuri Hosokawa

May 2019

Topics: Training & Performance, Hydration & Thermoregulation, Athlete Health


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