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SSE 242: Carbohydrate nutrition and skill performance in soccer

In all sports, skill is used as an umbrella term that includes not only physical performance of a particular skill but also the complex interaction of cognitive and technical ability to respond to the multitude of scenarios that occur in every match. However, when competing in team sports participants experience, to different degrees, physical and mental fatigue that has a negative impact on the performance of sports specific skills.  As nutrition counter measure, the ingestion of appropriate quantities of carbohydrate, at appropriate times, has been shown to maintain or benefit aspects of skill performance. The mechanisms underpinning this preservation of skill with carbohydrate feedings involve a complex series of events between brain and skeletal muscle that interact to minimize the impact of physical and mental fatigue. Although these questions are specific to soccer research, many of the principles are directly transferable to other “stop-and-go” team sports. 

Reference Article

SSE 242: Carbohydrate nutrition and skill performance in soccer

Course Objectives

  • Identify contributing factors which reduce skill performance. 
  • Define how skill is measured and assessed in research and applied settings. 
  • Describe the appropriate carbohydrate ingestion strategies to help maintain skill performance. 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2026

BOC

1

12/19/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_242_002.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 241: Nutrition for Female Athlete Bone Health

Bone stress injuries (BSI) are one of the most insidious and challenging outcomes of REDs in female athletes. This is often because it is not until a BSI is diagnosed that the underlying, often prolonged and/or severe LEA, is discovered. BSI are the most common injury in athletes and two-to-four times more common among females than males with prevalence rates as high as 20% depending on sport type. Since BSI are usually preceded by decreases in bone mineral density (BMD), and since any meaningful change (positive or negative) in the structural characteristics of the bone tissue can take months or years to occur, impairments to bone health can be incredibly difficult to prevent, treat and reverse. In this course, Dr Ida Heikura explores the key nutritional challenges and opportunities to support optimal bone health in female athletes, followed by a stepwise action plan to prevent poor bone health.

 

Reference Article

SSE 241: Nutrition for Female Athlete Bone Health

Course Objectives

  • Describe the nutritional challenges and opportunities for optimal bone health in female athletes 
  • Discuss the three step-framework for preventing and treating issues related to bone health 
  • Utilize the REDs screening to identify athletes at greatest risk for bone health issues.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2026

BOC

1

12/19/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_241_003.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 240: Creatine Supplementation: New Insights and Perspectives on Bone and Brain Health

Creatine is a well-established dietary supplement which enhances resistance training adaptations across the lifespan, including muscle mass and performance. Beyond muscle, creatine has been shown to have favorable effects on measures of bone biology in older adults and disease state populations and measures of brain health and function across a variety of populations, including young adults who experienced traumatic brain injury. This review will outline recent advances and perspectives on how creatine supplementation functions to improve indices of bone and brain health across a variety of populations. 

Reference Article

SSE 240: Creatine Supplementation: New Insights and Perspectives on Bone and Brain Health

Course Objectives

  • Outline a general overview of how creatine supplementation enhances muscle mass and performance. 
  • Describe the mechanisms and highlight recent research examining creatine’s effects when combined with resistance training on bone tissue. 
  • Discuss recent research evaluating the effects of creatine supplementation on brain function and highlight the benefits when the brain is stressed (i.e., mental fatigue, sleep deprivation, aging, and hypoxia).  
  • Identify which neuromuscular diseases have been shown to benefit from creatine supplementation. 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2026

BOC

1

12/19/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_240_001.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 239: Contemporary Approaches to the Identification and Treatment of Iron Deficiency in Athletes

Iron is an essential micronutrient in the diet. However, athletes commonly present as iron deficient because of numerous mechanisms associated with exercise. An understanding of these mechanisms is important in our strategic approach to repleting and maintaining healthy iron stores Athletes presenting with an iron deficiency have several options with regard to addressing the problem. These include, an increase in overall nutrient intake from food, the use of oral iron supplements, or in severe cases, consideration of parenteral iron therapy. The approach taken to correct iron stores should be made in consideration of an athlete’s iron screening results, which should be standardized and collected on a routine basis.

 

Reference Article

SSE 239: Contemporary Approaches to the Identification and Treatment of Iron Deficiency in Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the mechanisms of iron regulation in athlete populations. 
  • Describe the three stages of iron deficiency according to the blood screening for serum ferritin, haemoglobin, and transferrin saturation. 
  • Identify the various options for iron supplementation in relation to the athlete’s blood screening results. 
  • Strategize how to approach iron supplementation when working with athletes who have gastrointestinal sensitivity.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2026

BOC

1

12/19/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_239_002.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 238: Micronutrient Considerations for Female Athletes

Vitamins and minerals are essential for numerous metabolic processes in the body, such as immune functioning, haematological adaption, energy metabolism and growth and repair. Athletes often have higher micronutrient requirements than the general population due to the increased utilisation and/or losses of micronutrients associated with exercise and training adaptation. Females can be at greater risk of micronutrient deficiencies and vitamin and/or mineral supplements can have a useful role in helping an athlete meet daily micronutrient needs. Iron, calcium, vitamin D and folate are identified as micronutrients which require greater attention for female athletes.

Reference Article

SSE 238: Micronutrient Considerations for Female Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Articulate key anthropometric and physiological differences between males and females. 
  • Discuss some of the reasons female athletes are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and the overarching nutritional factors that should be addressed.  
  • Define key vitamins and minerals which female athletes should pay specific attention to and their recommended dietary intakes.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/21/2026

BOC

1

11/21/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_238_003.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 237: Hydration in Physically Active Women

A significant amount of research has been conducted to understand body water regulation and the effects of hypohydration on thermoregulation, cardiovascular function, and performance during exercise in heat. However, women have been underrepresented in hydration research, accounting for less than ~30% of subjects tested in recent studies. Women have lower whole body sweating rate (WBSR) and sweat sodium concentrations as a population than men, but in most environments these differences are attributed to lower absolute workloads. Dr Lindsay Baker reviews the state of the literature, the impact of the menstrual cycle on hydration and how hypohydration (≥ 2% body mass loss) can adversely affect athletic performance in women.

Reference Article

SSE 237: Hydration in Physically Active Women

Course Objectives

  • Identify differences in sweating rate and composition between men and women 
  • Describe the impact of different phases in the menstrual cycle on thirst and fluid retention 
  • Define the physiological responses to dehydration during exercise in women

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

BOC

1

11/21/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/21/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_237_004.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 233: A Practitioner's Guide to Improving Sleep in Athletes

Athletes are at a higher risk for sleep problems due to lifestyle and sports-related factors, and frequently suffer from sleep-related complaints. There are sleep strategies for practitioners and coaches to emphasize that can help improve athletes’ sleep and performance. Drs Lambing and Bender review the importance of recurring sleep education and screening for sleep disorders and how the practitioner can support the athletes and promote good quality and quantity of sleep.

Reference Article

SSE 233: A Practitioner's Guide to Improving Sleep in Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Describe the importance of sleep screening and the best timing to perform a sleep screening 
  • Define the negative impact a poor night of sleep can have on mental and physical performance  
  • Identify strategies to promote good sleep hygiene 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/21/2026

BOC

1

11/21/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/gssi_sse_233_final.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 232: Exogenous Ketone Supplements as Ergogenic Aids in Athletic Performance: A New Dawn Fades?

The ketone bodies acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate have wide-ranging metabolic and molecular effects on organs such as the brain, heart and skeletal muscle, some of which are suggestive of benefits to athletes in terms of performance and recovery. The recent development and increasing commercial availability of ingestible forms of ketone bodies as exogenous ketone supplements has amplified interest in these compounds. A variety of compounds classified as exogenous ketone supplements are now available and have been subject to several studies in exercise performance and recovery contexts in human participants. While there are mechanistic bases for potential beneficial effects of exogenous ketone supplements in various athletic contexts, most studies to date have failed to observe benefits to performance or recovery.

Reference Article

SSE 232: Exogenous Ketone Supplements as Ergogenic Aids in Athletic Performance: A New Dawn Fades?

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the differences between various exogenous ketone supplements in terms of form and effects on circulating ketone body concentrations 
  • Describe the potential mechanisms by which exogenous ketone supplements may improve or impair exercise performance 
  • Utilize the research to date on the effects of exogenous ketone supplements on exercise performance to guide athletes

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/15/2026

BOC

1

05/15/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_232_003.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 231: Dietary carbohydrate and the endurance athlete: contemporary perspectives

The importance of carbohydrate as a fuel source for endurance exercise and athletic performance is well established. Despite decades of intense carbohydrate research within the field of sports nutrition, new knowledge continues to be generated with the potential to inform practice. To ensure sufficient muscle glycogen availability, endurance competition or high-quality intense training should be preceded by daily dietary carbohydrate intakes scaled to the demands of the subsequent exercise. The optimization of liver and muscle glycogen content in the hours before and hours directly after exercise are important goals for carbohydrate nutrition. In this respect, nutrition strategies that combine glucose and fructose carbohydrate sources appear most beneficial for enhancement of performance and recovery. Athletes looking to benefit from carbohydrate feeding during exercise can choose from a wide range of readily oxidizable carbohydrate sources, with glucose-fructose blends (inc. sucrose) affording the greatest flexibility for within-event modulation of carbohydrate intake. Finally, a periodized approach to dietary carbohydrate intake around training will ensure athletes have sufficient fuel to execute the demands of training to maximize training adaptation whilst minimizing the potential for adverse health or performance consequences (e.g., through development of RED-S). 

Reference Article

SSE 231: Dietary carbohydrate and the endurance athlete: contemporary perspectives

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the available information on dietary carbohydrates and exercise when considering your athlete’s nutrition plan 
  • Describe the metabolic basis underpinning dietary carbohydrate recommendations for athletes 
  • Discuss technologies that practitioners might use to individualize dietary carbohydrate intakes for athletes

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/15/2026

BOC

1

05/15/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_231_005.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 228: Functional Ingredients to Support Active Women

There are important sex-based differences that exist between men and women that may influence nutrition and dietary supplement recommendations. The hormonal fluctuations throughout the menstrual cycle, and with oral contraceptives, result in metabolic alterations which should be considered when making supplement considerations for active women. Body composition and protein metabolism also change throughout a woman’s lifespan. This course will detail the scientific evidence related to sex-specific nutritional recommendations.

Reference Article

SSE 228: Functional Ingredients to Support Active Women

Course Objectives

  • Describe a typical menstrual cycle and potential metabolic alterations during the phases 
  • Discuss hormonal contraceptive use and the impact on the menstrual cycle 
  • Identify and describe dietary supplements that may be beneficial to active women

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/15/2026

BOC

1

05/15/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_228_004.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 227: Sports Nutrition Recommendations for Elite Female Soccer Players

The application of sound nutritional guidance is necessary to support female soccer player health and performance. Based on findings in elite female soccer players, there is scope to improve nutritional practices relative to energy intake, fueling, hydration, and supplement use. Drs. Samantha Moss and Rebecca Randell discuss the energy and nutrient needs of female soccer players and areas where additional high-quality research that includes elite female players as participants is necessary.

Reference Article

SSE 227: Sports Nutrition Recommendations for Elite Female Soccer Players

Course Objectives

  • Describe the role of energy availability in terms of performance and recovery. 
  • Compare current macronutrient intakes in female soccer players with recommended macronutrient intakes. 
  • Outline dietary supplements that may provide health and performance benefits to female soccer players.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

04/04/2026

BOC

1

04/04/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_227_005_final.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 226: Sweat Biomarkers for Sports Science Applications

There has been considerable interest recently in the concept of sweat biomarkers, which is generally defined as the use of sweat as a non-invasive alternative to blood analysis to provide insights into human physiology, health, and performance. Despite recent technological advances in wearable devices the application of sweat diagnostics in sports science has been limited to date. This course will discuss the challenges of utilizing sweat biomarkers and wearable technologies as well as where future work is needed.

Reference Article

SSE 226: Sweat Biomarkers for Sports Science Applications

Course Objectives

  • Define the different types of sweat glands and which is most relevant to sweat biomarker analysis. 
  • Identify the electrolytes, trace minerals and vitamins, metabolites, nitrogenous waste, stress and immune markers found in sweat and discuss their evidence as a biomarker. 
  • Describe the roles of wearable technologies in sweat biomarker analysis and where additional research is needed.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

02/06/2026

BOC

1

02/06/2026

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_226_007.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 225: Beyond Caffeine for Mental Performance

In this course, Dr David Kennedy discusses caffeine from a research and real-world perspective. Caffeine, when taken alone in a research context, is associated with consistent ergogenic and psychological benefits, although within differing optimal dose ranges. In a real-world sport/exercise context, caffeine is often consumed alongside other bioactive compounds in the form of manufactured energy drinks or naturally occurring, plant-derived, caffeinated products. This SSE course explores the state of the research and where further exploration is needed.

Reference Article

SSE 225: Beyond Caffeine for Mental Performance

Course Objectives

  • Define caffeine and its’ mechanism of actions as it relates to psychological effects.
  • Differentiate the optimal dose of caffeine and functional benefits for enhanced psychological performance.
  • Translate the effects of other constituents that are often co-ingested with caffeine in the real world.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

02/06/2026

BOC

1

02/06/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_225_a03.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 224: Application of Sports Nutrition to Healthy Aging

Aging is associated with the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and decline in physical function which may result in reduced mobility and subsequent loss of independence. Exercise is a potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis in both athletic populations and in older adults. Dietary practices by athletes to augment performance and recovery may be relevant to the preservation of skeletal muscle mass and strength in older adults such as the supplementation with creatine, long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), and inorganic nitrate.

Reference Article

SSE 224: Application of Sports Nutrition to Healthy Aging

Course Objectives

  • Identify how sports nutrition can be applied to improve skeletal muscle in older adults.
  • Discuss the scientific evidence surrounding elevated protein recommendations for older adults.
  • Describe the evidence for the supplementation of creatine, n-3 PUFAs, and inorganic nitrate to benefit skeletal muscle health in older adults.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2025

BOC

1

12/19/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_224_a04.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 221: Fish Oil for Healthy Aging - Potential Applications for Master Athletes

Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are a class of biologically active fatty acids that play fundamental roles in the production of anti-inflammatory signalling molecules as well as serving as vital components of phospholipid membranes. The most well studied LC n-3 PUFAs are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3). Often associated with improved cardiovascular health, there is now emerging evidence that ingestion of LC n-3 PUFAs above population recommendations enhances skeletal muscle anabolism in older adults. Indeed, daily intake of ~ 5g/d of LC n-3 PUFAs has been shown to potentiate the muscle protein synthetic response to the infusion of insulin and amino acids and increase gains in skeletal muscle strength with resistance exercise training in older women. These findings suggest that LC n-3 PUFA intake could have ergogenic effects in older exercising adults. However, more recent work has failed to detect a positive impact of LC n-3 PUFA intake towards skeletal muscle in older persons. Yet, few studies have been conducted in highly-trained older adults, or ‘master athletes’ thus it is unclear if there is a benefit to increased LC n-3 PUFA  intake in this specific population. Aside from the potential ergogenic benefit, as some older adults possess sub-optimal LC n-3 PUFA status, there may be utility in increasing LC n-3 PUFAs ingestion in older persons to support healthy aging. 

Reference Article

SSE 221: Fish Oil for Healthy Aging - Potential Applications for Master Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Describe the current state of evidence regarding the impact of LC n-3 PUFA intake on the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to exercise training in older persons.  
  • Define the strengths and limitations of assessing LC n-3 PUFA status in the context of the Sport and Exercise Science. 
  • Identify various food and supplemental sources of LC n-3 PUFAs that could be used to increase LC n-3 PUFA intake.  
 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2025

BOC

1

12/19/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse221_caioh_chrism_nov_a7.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 220: Plant versus animal-based proteins to support muscle conditioning

Because of the discussions on more sustainable food production and the need to improve lifestyle and health, there is a growing interest in the transition towards consuming a more plant-based diet. As a result, daily protein intake will be derived more from the consumption of plant-based proteins at the expense of animal-based proteins. There are many questions on whether this has impact on the capacity of an athlete to recover and recondition following exercise. So far, basic research indicates that the ingestion of plant-derived proteins may not stimulate muscle protein synthesis to the same extent when compared to the ingestion of an equivalent amount of animal-derived proteins. The proposed lesser anabolic properties of plant- versus animal-based proteins have been attributed to differences in protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics. Furthermore, most plant-derived proteins have lower essential amino acid contents and can be deficient in one or more specific amino acids. However, it should be noted that very few studies have directly compared muscle protein synthesis rates following the ingestion of plant- versus high quality animal-derived proteins. Theoretically, a lower bioavailability and/or functionality of plant-based protein sources and/or plant-derived protein concentrates may result in greater daily protein requirements for athletes transitioning towards a (more) plant-based diet. However, as athletes typically consume a diet that provides more than 1.5 g protein per day, a lesser protein bioavailability or protein quality will unlikely compromise muscle conditioning in athletes adopting a (more) plant-based diet. However, when athletes are changing to a plant-based diet under conditions of low(er) energy and/or protein intake, a sports dietitian should be consulted to ensure ample protein provision.

Reference Article

SSE 220: Plant versus animal-based proteins to support muscle conditioning

Course Objectives

  • Define the scientific background on the proposed lesser capacity of plant-based protein sources or plant-derived proteins to stimulate muscle protein synthesis when compared to the ingestion of an equivalent amount of high-quality, animal-based protein. 
  • Describe the differences in the bioavailability of protein from plant- versus animal-based protein sources and the intrinsic differences between plant- versus animal-derived proteins.  
  • Discuss the proposed impact of the transition towards a (more) plant-based diet on protein intake, protein intake requirements, and the capacity to recover and recondition after exercise.
 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/09/2025

BOC

1

11/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/vanloon_sse220.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 219: Protein requirements of master athletes: do they need more than their younger contemporaries?

Dietary protein is essential for an athlete’s recovery and adaptation as it provides the requisite amino acid building blocks to repair and remodeling old and/or damaged proteins, especially within working skeletal muscle. Amino acids may also be used as a source of fuel during exercise that requires high mitochondrial flux (e.g. repeated sprint and steady state endurance exercise) and therefore must be consumed in the diet to replenish these exercise-induced losses of the essential amino acids (e.g. branched chain amino acids). The majority of research on protein requirements for athletes have been performed in young individuals, which opens debate as to whether Master athletes would require similar or greater intakes. Available evidence suggest current recommendations for younger athletes would also translate to Master athletes. As opposed to daily protein targets that have been the focus of past research, current practice suggests the most efficient strategy to consume the daily protein requirement is to focus on consuming meals with a moderate amount of protein spaced regularly throughout the day. There is little evidence to suggest that protein requirements in older Master athletes are different between men and women, although estrogen is generally ‘protein-sparing’ and therefore can reduce protein requirements by ~10-15%. There appears to be an opportunity to educate Master athletes as to their meal protein requirements, which may be a safe and effective way to improve their training recovery and adaptation. 

Reference Article

SSE 219: Protein requirements of master athletes: do they need more than their younger contemporaries?

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the available information on dietary protein recommendations when designing your athlete’s nutrition plan.
  • Describe the how dietary protein predominantly supports an athlete’s training and recovery 
  • Discuss why protein recommendations may not be affected by age in Master athletes 
  • Describe how proper meal planning (frequency and protein amount) can help Master athletes meet their daily protein recommendations
 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/09/2025

BOC

1

11/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/moore_protein_requirement_sse219.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 216: Youth Athlete Development and Nutrition

Adolescence is a period of natural experimentation and is particularly important in terms of establishing the connection between diet, exercise and body image. An adolescent’s peers become increasingly powerful moderators of all behaviors, including eating. The pathway to elite sports performance is complex, and rarely forecast by success at junior levels. Stakeholders involved in managing developing athletes have a responsibility to prioritize sound physical and mental development while integrating principles of sport nutrition success. 

Reference Article

SSE 216: Youth Athlete Development and Nutrition

Course Objectives

  • Describe the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders (adults) in managing the development of youth athletes. 
  • Define the criteria needed to determine energy needs for sport as well as growth and development in youth athletes.  
  • Identify macronutrient needs of youth athletes and micronutrients at most risk for insufficiency and deficiency in youth athletes. 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/09/2025

BOC

1

11/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/desbrow_sse216.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 215: Practical Approaches to Nutrition for Female Athletes

The majority of published sport nutrition recommendations are based on studies conducted with male athletes. In female athletes, the menstrual cycle may affect optimal nutrition strategies for performance, but menstrual cycles can be quite variable. Authors Bryan Holtzman and Kate Ackerman review the nutritional recommendations for female athletes from a variety of perspectives. Within the review, the energetic requirements for athletes and the negative effects of failing to meet these requirements are discussed. The authors also establish a model for meeting nutritional needs of increasing complexity and personalization for female athletes and provide baseline recommendations for female athletes. This course aims to provide practical advice for athletes, coaches, physicians, and other members of the athlete entourage.

Reference Article

SSE 215: Practical Approaches to Nutrition for Female Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Define energy availability and the impact of failing to meet energy needs in female athletes 
  • Describe unique physiological considerations for female athletes related to the menstrual cycle. 
  • Identify micronutrients of particular interest for female athletes and baseline recommendations for intake.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/26/2025

BOC

1

05/26/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/final-gssi_sse_215.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE #213: Cannabidiol (CBD) and the athlete: claims, evidence, prevalence and safety concerns

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant and is no longer prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency; however, all other cannabinoids remain on the prohibited list. The legal status of CBD is complicated and varies from country to country. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the country (and state) specific legal status of CBD. Dr. Graeme Close and colleagues discuss the benefits of CBD that have been reported both anecdotally and within the literature as well as the risks with CBD use on health, safety and potential for inadvertent doping via the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or other cannabinoids in CBD supplements. 

Reference Article

SSE #213: Cannabidiol (CBD) and the athlete: claims, evidence, prevalence and safety concerns

Course Objectives

  • Describe an overview of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) 

  • Appraise the current evidence and efficacy in relation to CBD use in sport 

  • Discuss the issues and risks surrounding inadvertent doping following the use of CBD

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/26/2025

BOC

1

01/26/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/cannabidiol-(cbd)-and-the-athlete-claims-evidence-prevalence-and-safety-concerns

SSE #211: Omega-3 fatty acids for training adaptation and exercise recovery: a muscle centric perspective in athletes

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are traditionally associated with cardiometabolic health with implications for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, omega-3 fatty acids have received considerable attention in the context of athlete health and performance, specifically with regards to promoting training adaptation and exercise recovery.

Reference Article

SSE #211: Omega-3 fatty acids for training adaptation and exercise recovery: a muscle centric perspective in athletes

Course Objectives

  • Identify common food sources that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
  • Discuss the scientific evidence base that underpins the role of omega-3 fatty acids in promoting muscle hypertrophy.
  • Explain the proposed mechanisms that underpin the link between omega-3 fatty acids, training adaptation and exercise recovery in athletes.  

 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/06/2024

BOC

1

11/06/2024

CSCCa

1

11/06/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/witard-davis_sse_211_a04_final.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE #210: Hydration and team sport cognitive function, technical skill and physical performance

Team sport athletes are at risk of training and competing in a hypohydrated state when fluid losses are large and/or there are challenges with fluid availability or opportunity to drink. Technical skill and cognitive function are essential to team sport athlete performance and may be impaired with hypohydration, especially when combined with heat stress. The mechanism of cognitive impairment with hypohydration is not fully understood. Decrements in cognitive function, skill and physical performance in team sports are more likely to occur when hypohydration levels are > 2% body mass loss, but there is significant inter-individual variability in the effect of hypohydration on team sport performance. 

Reference Article

SSE #210: Hydration and team sport cognitive function, technical skill and physical performance

Course Objectives

  • Utilize data presented in the SSE to identify the sports and individuals that may be at greatest risk for hypohydration during team sport practices and games.
  • Describe the risk factors for hypohydration that, when met, may impact technical skills and cognitive function during team sport play. 
  • Discuss practical strategies to allow athletes access to fluid and adequate opportunities to drink during team sport practices and games. 
 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

09/09/2024

BOC

1

09/09/2024

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

CSCCa

1

09/09/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/barnes-baker_sse_210_a06_final.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE #208: An update on beta-alanine supplementation for athletes

Fatigue during high intensity sports or activities (~1-10 minutes in length) is caused by several components with strong evidence that muscle acidosis via accumulating hydrogen ions is a key performance inhibitor.  To address this issue, skeletal muscle has intra and extracellular buffering mechanisms to attenuate exercise induced acidosis.  Carnosine is an intracellular buffer that is key in slowing the decline of muscle pH.  Carnosine has a nitrogen containing imidazole side ring which accepts or buffers hydrogen.  This buffering can contribute as much as 15% of total buffering capacity.  Additionally, carnosine has been shown to be a calcium/hydrogen exchanger, delivering calcium back to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and hydrogen away to the cell membrane.  This suggests that carnosine may increase calcium sensitivity and muscle contraction efficiency.  Plasma beta-alanine is the rate limiting substrate of carnosine.  Approximately 3-6 g/d of beta-alanine supplementation over at least four weeks can elevate muscle carnosine stores by 30-60%.  Several meta-analyses have been conducted and has shown 2-3% increased performance in non-elite athletes, followed with just 0.5-1% increased performance in elite athletes. 

Reference Article

SSE #208: An update on beta-alanine supplementation for athletes

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the information provided in this SSE to determine whether beta-alanine supplementation is right for your athlete and their training needs. 
  • Describe the mechanisms that carnosine buffers hydrogen and exchanges calcium/hydrogen. 
  • Discuss future applied research for beta-alanine and how else beta-alanine can be applied to non-elite and elite athletes.  

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

06/24/2024

BOC

1

06/23/2024

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

CSCCa

1

06/23/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/stellingwerff_sse_208_a03.pdf?sfvrsn=2