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SSE #188: Vegetarian and vegan diets for athletic training and performance

Vegetarian diets are selected by athletes for a variety of reasons including health, environmental, ethical, philosophical, religious/spiritual and esthetics. Athletes at all levels, from youth to recreational to elite, can meet their energy and nutrient needs on a vegetarian or vegan diet that contains a variety of foods, including grain products, fruits, vegetables, protein-rich plant foods, and (if desired) dairy products and eggs. Like most athletes, vegetarian and vegan athletes may benefit from education about food choices to optimize their health and performance. 

Reference Article

SSE #188: Vegetarian and vegan diets for athletic training and performance

Course Objectives

  • Utilize nutrition strategies to ensure vegetarian and vegan athletes are meeting their energy, macronutrient and micronutrient needs to support health and performance.  
  • Discuss the various types of vegetarian and vegan diets and benefits or limitations of each  
  • Describe the potential health and performance benefits of vegetarian and vegan diets 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/31/2020

BOC

1

12/31/2020

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

12/31/2020

CSCCa

1

12/31/2020

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/vegetarian-and-vegan-diets-for-athletic-training-and-performance

SSE #179: NUTRITION STRATEGIES FOR GUT HEALTH AND IMMUNE FUNCTION - WHAT DO WE KNOW AND WHAT ARE THE GAPS?

Gut health and immune function are central to preventing illnesses that negatively impact athletic performance. More recently, evidence suggests that gut health and immune function may play a role in promoting adaptation to exercise. Gut bacteria, or the microbiota, perform several vital functions. Athletes are advised to work with their dietitians to determine what may be useful to add or remove from their diet. 

Reference Article

SSE #179: NUTRITION STRATEGIES FOR GUT HEALTH AND IMMUNE FUNCTION - WHAT DO WE KNOW AND WHAT ARE THE GAPS?

Course Objectives

  • Utilize dietary interventions to promote gut health 

  • Discuss where the science is and where further research is warranted 
  • Describe the relationship between the gut and athlete health/performance 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/nutrition-strategies-for-gut-health-and-immune-function---what-do-we-know-and-what-are-the-gaps

SSE #177: Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals

Energy balance is a dynamic process that assumes that numerous biological and behavioral factors regulate and influence both sides of the energy balance equation. Thus, changing one side of the energy balance equation (energy intake) can and does influence the other side of the equation (energy expenditure). The energy cost of weight loss changes over time even when the level of energy restriction is held constant. Thus, individuals will lose weight differently on the same weight loss diet, even if no exercise is part of the weight loss plan. Active individuals, especially lean athletes, who desire weight loss should not restrict energy intake too dramatically to avoid loss of lean tissue. To preserve lean tissue during periods of energy restriction, adequate protein intake needs to be assessed and prescribed.

Reference Article

SSE #177: Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals

Course Objectives

  • Utilize methods backed by research when helping athletes to manage their weight

 

  • Recognize that weight management methods are variable for each athlete

 

  • Describe best practices for managing athlete energy balance

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/weight-management-for-athletes-and-active-individuals

SSE #176: HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE YOUTH SPORTS - THE FUTURE OF YOUTH ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT

There are many benefits yet also several challenges associated with participation in youth sports. A variable, diversified and balanced development program with an athlete-centered emphasis on health, safety and fun is the best pathway to sustainable athletic and sport success and optimal performance.

Reference Article

SSE #176: HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE YOUTH SPORTS - THE FUTURE OF YOUTH ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT

Course Objectives

  • Describe the benefits and challenges associated with the development of youth sport programs
  • Recognize approaches that can be taken to ensure best practices are used when developing youth athletes
  • Utilize the learnings from this Sports Science Exchange to support future development of youth sport programs

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/healthy-and-sustainable-youth-sports---the-future-of-youth-athlete-development

SSE #175: The Female Athlete: Energy and Nutrition Issues

Energy intake is important for numerous reasons when it comes to the female athlete. Low energy intakes increase the risk of many health issues and impaired performance. For active females, adequate energy intake is essential for high-level performance and maintaining or building muscle, bone, and general health. There are specific micronutrients discussed in this sports science exchange article that are most likely to be low in the diets of active women if energy is restricted, poor food choices are made, or gastrointestinal issues are present.

Reference Article

SSE #175: The Female Athlete: Energy and Nutrition Issues

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the importance of adequate energy intake for females.

 

  • Describe what may occur in the female body if energy intake is chronically restricted.

 

  • Utilize the information related to low energy intake to guide female athletes towards adequate nutritional intake.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/the-female-athlete-energy-and-nutrition-issues

SSE #173: Nutritional Strategies to Improve Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Content and Function

Training-induced increases in mitochondrial content improve exercise tolerance by attenuating rises in cytosolic free adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentrations. Nutritional approaches to improve training-induced mitochondrial biogenesis are limited, partially because of a lack of understanding of the initiating molecular signals regulating this process. The recent revelation that mitochondrial derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce mitochondrial biogenesis may result in novel training approaches. The consumption of various nutrients may also play a role in mitochondrial content.

Reference Article

SSE #173: Nutritional Strategies to Improve Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Content and Function

Course Objectives

Describe training-induced changed in the mitochondria post-exercise

Describe which nutrients may play a role in mitochondrial content

Utilize current research to improve mitochondrial function for exercise performance

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/nutritional-strategies-to-improve-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-content-and-function

SSE #172: Factors That Influence the Amount of Protein Necessary to Maximize the Anabolic Response of Muscle Following Resistance Exercise

The metabolic basis for changes in muscle mass is net muscle protein balance, i.e., the balance between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Many factors influence the response of MPS to protein ingestion following resistance exercise. However, the amount of protein consumed in a single serving following exercise is the most important factor that determines the magnitude of the MPS response. The optimal amount of protein to consume following exercise varies depending on a number of factors, including the characteristics of the exercise bout, the age of the individual, type of protein ingested, and possibly the amount of muscle mass an individual possesses.

Reference Article

SSE #172: Factors That Influence the Amount of Protein Necessary to Maximize the Anabolic Response of Muscle Following Resistance Exercise

Course Objectives

Describe the outcomes of the literature examining the muscle response to protein and resistance exercise

Recognize what is known about protein and resistance exercise, and what needs to be examined further

Utilize the research when making recommendations for anabolic muscle response

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/factors-that-influence-the-amount-of-protein-necessary-to-maximize-the-anabolic-response-of-muscle-following-resistance-exercise

SSE #170: Branched-chain amino acid supplementation to support muscle anabolism following exercise

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids that play several important roles in muscle metabolism. The BCAAs are critical for stimulation of molecular signaling that leads to muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown. This sports science exchange will discuss the research associated with BCAAs, other nutritional sources, and their effects on muscle protein following exercise.

Reference Article

SSE #170: Branched-chain amino acid supplementation to support muscle anabolism following exercise

Course Objectives

Describe the literature associated with BCAAs and muscle protein following exercise

Recognize the effect that nutritional supplementation along with exercise may have on muscle

Utilize the research available to develop a baseline understanding of BCAAs and muscle protein

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-to-support-muscle-anabolism-following-exercise

SSE #169: Nutritional Support for Injuries Requiring Reduced Activity

The inflammatory response to an injury is an integral and important part of the healing process. Immobilization of a limb due to injury results in a sudden and dramatic loss of muscle mass, strength and function. Energy intake during a period of limb immobilization is often decreased from previously, but the decrease is unlikely to be as dramatic as may be initially considered. Careful determinations of energy expenditure and intake during recovery from injury are important aspects of nutritional management. A sudden and dramatic decrease in specific nutrient intake following a relatively severe injury will lead to impaired wound healing and/or increased muscle loss during periods of reduced activity. There is a theoretical rationale and/or preliminary evidence for the efficacy of several nutrients and nutraceuticals to counter muscle loss during limb immobilization and/or reduced physical activity following injury. However, not only must any available data be considered preliminary, an understanding of the optimal dose, timing and potentially harmful consequences are in need as well.

Reference Article

SSE #169: Nutritional Support for Injuries Requiring Reduced Activity

Course Objectives

Describe inflammation and its role in exercise and recovery

Recognize the research available to understand how nutrition impacts recovery

Utilize best practices when dealing with injuries and reduced activity

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/sse-169-nutritional-support-for-injuries-requiring-reduced-activity

SSE #161: Sweat Testing Methodology in the Field: Challenges and Best Practices

The amount of water and electrolytes (primarily sodium, Na+) lost as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise can vary considerably within and among athletes. Some factors that cause the sweat rate variability: exercise intensity, environmental conditions, heat acclimation status, aerobic capacity, genetic predisposition, body size/composition, protective equipment, sex, diet and hydration status. Sweat testing can help to estimate individual sweating rates and sweat Na+ losses to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations. However, it is important to note that if sweat testing is not done correctly and in a consistent manner, sweat testing results may vary and will be inaccurate. Based on study findings to date, as well as some practical considerations, current best practices in sweat testing in the field (including collection, storage, analysis and interpretation) are proposed.

Reference Article

SSE #161: Sweat Testing Methodology in the Field: Challenges and Best Practices

Course Objectives

Describe the literature and best practices for sweat testing methodology

Recognize the effect of methodological variations on sweating rate and sweat electrolyte concentrations

Utilize the best practices for sweat testing in the field

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/sse-161-sweat-testing-methodology-in-the-field-challenges-and-best-practices

SSE #160: Dietary protein to support active aging

Aging is accompanied by a decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. The loss of muscle mass with aging is at least partly attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to food intake. Physical activity increases the sensitivity of skeletal muscle tissue to the anabolic properties of protein consumption. Exercise and adequate protein consumption together attenuates age-related muscle loss and can be combined effectively to increase muscle mass, strength and functional performance in older populations.  Thus, research is ongoing to define the optimal type, amount, and appropriate timing of protein intake to further enhance the adaptive response to exercise training.

Reference Article

SSE #160: Dietary protein to support active aging

Course Objectives

Discuss the body’s response to aging and what can be done to attenuate negative health effects

Define how protein may support active aging

Examine areas that may enhance the effects of diet and exercise in the older population

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/sse-160-dietary-protein-to-support-active-aging

SSE #159: PROTEIN AND EXERCISE IN WEIGHT LOSS: CONSIDERATIONS FOR ATHLETES

Weight loss is common in athletes and is typically practiced with the goal of increasing the efficiency of movement and thus enhancing performance. Weight loss can be accomplished “passively”, making use of nutrition strategies only; i.e. by restricting energy intake. Several ‘diet-only’ plans have been examined in head-to-head studies, confirming there are a variety of dietary patterns which promote weight loss; all of which must create an energy deficit. However, weight loss via diet alone results in the loss of both body fat and lean tissue, which would likely include skeletal muscle and potentially the loss of bone mass. In addition to diet-only strategies, weight loss can be accomplished through increasing the volume/intensity of exercise without changes in dietary intake, or as is more common, in combination with a reduction in energy intake. Optimizing both the quantity and timing of protein intake can help mitigate losses in muscle mass. In addition to protein intake and exercise, the speed of weight loss, and hence the magnitude of the caloric deficit, can affect the ability to retain lean mass. In fact, with substantially large caloric deficits, increases in dietary protein may show diminishing effects in mitigating losses of lean tissue mass.

Reference Article

SSE #159: PROTEIN AND EXERCISE IN WEIGHT LOSS: CONSIDERATIONS FOR ATHLETES

Course Objectives

  • Recognize the role dietary protein plays in athlete weight loss.
  • Identify key practices that may help to maintain lean body mass.
  • Utilize current research when making diet and training recommendations to achieve weight loss in athletes.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/sse-159-protein-and-exercise-in-weight-loss-considerations-for-athletes

SSE #158: Hydration and Thermal Strain in Youth Sports: Responses and Recommendations to Minimize Clinical Risk and Optimize Performance in the Heat

Ensuring adolescent athletes are healthy, sufficiently fit, rested, well hydrated, nourished, and progressively acclimatized to the heat is critical to minimizing the risk of exertional heat illness. In relation to individual health status and fitness, athletic activities should be appropriately modified as heat and humidity rise. With sufficient preparation, appropriate modification, and close monitoring, exertional heat illness is usually preventable.

Reference Article

SSE #158: Hydration and Thermal Strain in Youth Sports: Responses and Recommendations to Minimize Clinical Risk and Optimize Performance in the Heat

Course Objectives

  • Recognize the risks accompanying exertional heat illness in adolescents
  • Identify key factors leading to heat illness
  • Utilize the recommendations to prevent heat illness in adolescents

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/sse-158-hydration-and-thermal-strain-in-youth-sports-responses-and-recommendations-to-minimize-clinical-risk-and-optimize-performance-in-the-heat

SSE #156: Dietary Nitric Oxide Precursors and Exercise Performance

Nitric Oxide (NO) is involved in several bodily processes, and exercise performance may be enhanced by augmenting NO production. NO can be synthesized by oxidation of the amino acid, L-arginine, or by reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Dietary supplements containing these NO precursors have been promoted as possible ergogenic aids. L-citrulline supplementation may enable a higher level of extracellular L-arginine and enhanced NO availability, but further studies are required to investigate its ergogenic potential. Dietary nitrate supplementation, typically via beetroot juice ingestion, has been shown to reduce oxygen cost of low-intensity exercise and to increase the time to exhaustion during high-intensity continuous and intermittent exercise. The efficacy of dietary supplementation with NO precursors is likely related to a range of factors.

Reference Article

SSE #156: Dietary Nitric Oxide Precursors and Exercise Performance

Course Objectives

  • Describe the bodily processes that Nitric Oxide is involved in.
  • Discuss practical implications of Nitric Oxide precursors with exercise performance.
  • Utilize the research regarding the benefits that Nitric Oxide may provide for performance.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/sse-156-dietary-nitric-oxide-precursors-and-exercise-performance

SSE #154: High-Intensity Interval Training and the Impact of Diet

Dietary interventions can alter the acute and chronic responses to interval-type exercise. The effect of specific dietary manipulations on interval training is difficult to draw conclusions from, as there have been limited studies in this area. Based on the research available, we may draw conclusions regarding carbohydrate availability, sodium bicarbonate, as well as beta-alanine, and their suggested role in performance adaptations.

Reference Article

SSE #154: High-Intensity Interval Training and the Impact of Diet

Course Objectives

  • Describe the impact dietary interventions paired with interval training may have on chronic and acute responses in training adaptations.
  • Discuss practical implications of carbohydrate restriction with interval training.
  • Utilize the roles sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine supplementation may play with improvements in performance.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

0.5

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/sse-154-high-intensity-interval-training-and-the-impact-of-diet

SSE #153: Heat Acclimatization to Improve Athletic Performance in Warm-Hot Environments

Heat acclimatization (acclimation) occurs when repeated exercise-induced heat exposures are sufficiently stressful to invoke profuse sweating and elevate whole-body temperature. Biological adaptations to heat acclimation include reduced physiological strain, improved comfort, improved exercise capacity and a reduction in risk of serious heat illness during exposure to heat stress. Practical strategies to induce heat acclimation are discussed.

Reference Article

SSE #153: Heat Acclimatization to Improve Athletic Performance in Warm-Hot Environments

Course Objectives

  • Describe the mechanisms behind the exposure necessary to induce heat acclimatization.

  • Explain the benefits of allowing an athlete to heat acclimatize prior to an event or competition.

  • Utilize strategies to induce heat acclimation in a variety of athletes and settings.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

NSCA

0.1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/Article/sse-153-heat-acclimatization-to-improve-athletic-performance-in-warm-hot-environments

SSE #152: Hydration & Aerobic Performance: Impact of Environment

When sweat rates are high, ad libitum fluid intake is often not adequate to full replace sweat losses. This can result in cumulative body water deficits (Hypohydration) that can negatively impact aerobic performance, particularly in warm-hot environments. Hypohydration occurs at a body water deficit of >2% body mass loss. Mechanisms behind impaired aerobic performance are discussed.

Reference Article

SSE #152: Hydration & Aerobic Performance: Impact of Environment

Course Objectives

  • Describe the impact that metabolic intensity and the environment play in hydration and aerobic performance.
  • Discuss Hypohydration and which environmental conditions are likely to have the greatest impact on aerobic performance.
  • Utilize practical data, such as sweat rate, to develop a hydration strategy to support performance during aerobic exercise.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/01/2021

BOC

1

01/01/2021

USA Cycling Association

1

01/01/2021

NSCA

0.1

01/01/2021

CSCCa

1

01/01/2021

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/en/Article/sse-152-hydration-and-aerobic-performance-impact-of-environment