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SSE 224: Application of Sports Nutrition to Healthy Aging

Aging is associated with the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and decline in physical function which may result in reduced mobility and subsequent loss of independence. Exercise is a potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis in both athletic populations and in older adults. Dietary practices by athletes to augment performance and recovery may be relevant to the preservation of skeletal muscle mass and strength in older adults such as the supplementation with creatine, long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), and inorganic nitrate.

Reference Article

SSE 224: Application of Sports Nutrition to Healthy Aging

Course Objectives

  • Identify how sports nutrition can be applied to improve skeletal muscle in older adults.
  • Discuss the scientific evidence surrounding elevated protein recommendations for older adults.
  • Describe the evidence for the supplementation of creatine, n-3 PUFAs, and inorganic nitrate to benefit skeletal muscle health in older adults.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2025

BOC

1

12/19/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_224_a04.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 221: Fish Oil for Healthy Aging - Potential Applications for Master Athletes

Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are a class of biologically active fatty acids that play fundamental roles in the production of anti-inflammatory signalling molecules as well as serving as vital components of phospholipid membranes. The most well studied LC n-3 PUFAs are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3). Often associated with improved cardiovascular health, there is now emerging evidence that ingestion of LC n-3 PUFAs above population recommendations enhances skeletal muscle anabolism in older adults. Indeed, daily intake of ~ 5g/d of LC n-3 PUFAs has been shown to potentiate the muscle protein synthetic response to the infusion of insulin and amino acids and increase gains in skeletal muscle strength with resistance exercise training in older women. These findings suggest that LC n-3 PUFA intake could have ergogenic effects in older exercising adults. However, more recent work has failed to detect a positive impact of LC n-3 PUFA intake towards skeletal muscle in older persons. Yet, few studies have been conducted in highly-trained older adults, or ‘master athletes’ thus it is unclear if there is a benefit to increased LC n-3 PUFA  intake in this specific population. Aside from the potential ergogenic benefit, as some older adults possess sub-optimal LC n-3 PUFA status, there may be utility in increasing LC n-3 PUFAs ingestion in older persons to support healthy aging. 

Reference Article

SSE 221: Fish Oil for Healthy Aging - Potential Applications for Master Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Describe the current state of evidence regarding the impact of LC n-3 PUFA intake on the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to exercise training in older persons.  
  • Define the strengths and limitations of assessing LC n-3 PUFA status in the context of the Sport and Exercise Science. 
  • Identify various food and supplemental sources of LC n-3 PUFAs that could be used to increase LC n-3 PUFA intake.  
 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2025

BOC

1

12/19/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse221_caioh_chrism_nov_a7.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 219: Protein requirements of master athletes: do they need more than their younger contemporaries?

Dietary protein is essential for an athlete’s recovery and adaptation as it provides the requisite amino acid building blocks to repair and remodeling old and/or damaged proteins, especially within working skeletal muscle. Amino acids may also be used as a source of fuel during exercise that requires high mitochondrial flux (e.g. repeated sprint and steady state endurance exercise) and therefore must be consumed in the diet to replenish these exercise-induced losses of the essential amino acids (e.g. branched chain amino acids). The majority of research on protein requirements for athletes have been performed in young individuals, which opens debate as to whether Master athletes would require similar or greater intakes. Available evidence suggest current recommendations for younger athletes would also translate to Master athletes. As opposed to daily protein targets that have been the focus of past research, current practice suggests the most efficient strategy to consume the daily protein requirement is to focus on consuming meals with a moderate amount of protein spaced regularly throughout the day. There is little evidence to suggest that protein requirements in older Master athletes are different between men and women, although estrogen is generally ‘protein-sparing’ and therefore can reduce protein requirements by ~10-15%. There appears to be an opportunity to educate Master athletes as to their meal protein requirements, which may be a safe and effective way to improve their training recovery and adaptation. 

Reference Article

SSE 219: Protein requirements of master athletes: do they need more than their younger contemporaries?

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the available information on dietary protein recommendations when designing your athlete’s nutrition plan.
  • Describe the how dietary protein predominantly supports an athlete’s training and recovery 
  • Discuss why protein recommendations may not be affected by age in Master athletes 
  • Describe how proper meal planning (frequency and protein amount) can help Master athletes meet their daily protein recommendations
 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/09/2025

BOC

1

11/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/moore_protein_requirement_sse219.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 216: Youth Athlete Development and Nutrition

Adolescence is a period of natural experimentation and is particularly important in terms of establishing the connection between diet, exercise and body image. An adolescent’s peers become increasingly powerful moderators of all behaviors, including eating. The pathway to elite sports performance is complex, and rarely forecast by success at junior levels. Stakeholders involved in managing developing athletes have a responsibility to prioritize sound physical and mental development while integrating principles of sport nutrition success. 

Reference Article

SSE 216: Youth Athlete Development and Nutrition

Course Objectives

  • Describe the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders (adults) in managing the development of youth athletes. 
  • Define the criteria needed to determine energy needs for sport as well as growth and development in youth athletes.  
  • Identify macronutrient needs of youth athletes and micronutrients at most risk for insufficiency and deficiency in youth athletes. 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/09/2025

BOC

1

11/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/desbrow_sse216.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 215: Practical Approaches to Nutrition for Female Athletes

The majority of published sport nutrition recommendations are based on studies conducted with male athletes. In female athletes, the menstrual cycle may affect optimal nutrition strategies for performance, but menstrual cycles can be quite variable. Authors Bryan Holtzman and Kate Ackerman review the nutritional recommendations for female athletes from a variety of perspectives. Within the review, the energetic requirements for athletes and the negative effects of failing to meet these requirements are discussed. The authors also establish a model for meeting nutritional needs of increasing complexity and personalization for female athletes and provide baseline recommendations for female athletes. This course aims to provide practical advice for athletes, coaches, physicians, and other members of the athlete entourage.

Reference Article

SSE 215: Practical Approaches to Nutrition for Female Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Define energy availability and the impact of failing to meet energy needs in female athletes 
  • Describe unique physiological considerations for female athletes related to the menstrual cycle. 
  • Identify micronutrients of particular interest for female athletes and baseline recommendations for intake.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/26/2025

BOC

1

05/26/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/final-gssi_sse_215.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE #213: Cannabidiol (CBD) and the athlete: claims, evidence, prevalence and safety concerns

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant and is no longer prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency; however, all other cannabinoids remain on the prohibited list. The legal status of CBD is complicated and varies from country to country. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the country (and state) specific legal status of CBD. Dr. Graeme Close and colleagues discuss the benefits of CBD that have been reported both anecdotally and within the literature as well as the risks with CBD use on health, safety and potential for inadvertent doping via the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or other cannabinoids in CBD supplements. 

Reference Article

SSE #213: Cannabidiol (CBD) and the athlete: claims, evidence, prevalence and safety concerns

Course Objectives

  • Describe an overview of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) 

  • Appraise the current evidence and efficacy in relation to CBD use in sport 

  • Discuss the issues and risks surrounding inadvertent doping following the use of CBD

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/26/2025

BOC

1

01/26/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

01/26/2025

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/cannabidiol-(cbd)-and-the-athlete-claims-evidence-prevalence-and-safety-concerns

SSE #204: Blood biomarker analysis for the high-performance athlete

Understanding an athlete’s blood biomarkers is an objective way to measure performance, recovery, and nutritional status.  Since an athlete is exposed to different stressors such as increased workload, sleep loss, and travel, it is important to monitor an athlete’s blood biomarkers to prevent injury and illness.  Common issues that can be found my measuring blood biomarkers is low Vitamin D and Iron status, low energy availability, and decreased hormone levels.  Analyzing blood biomarkers can help to keep an athlete healthy, however, the results can be jeopardized by faulty pre analytic approaches.  Ensuring appropriate pre analytic approaches are taken are likely to increase the probability of measuring physiological changes in an athlete.  In addition to blood biomarkers, other subjective, physical, and metabolic measurements should be taken to measure physiological changes during an athlete’s season.   

 

Reference Article

SSE #204: Blood biomarker analysis for the high-performance athlete

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the presented information to determine if measuring your athlete’s blood biomarkers is advantageous to their training plan.
  • Describe the proper pre analytic approaches and how to implement the necessary steps to collect the most valid data. 
  • Discuss the benefits of longitudinal data collection for your athlete’s health and performance. 
 

 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

10/08/2023

BOC

1

10/08/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

10/08/2023

CSCCa

1

10/08/2023

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/pedlar_sse_204_a03.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE #201: Nutrition and Athlete Bone Health

Bone health is an important aspect that the general population should pay attention to, especially the athlete population.  Good bone health will not only prevent immediate injuries such as stress fractures but will prevent long lasting damage later in an athlete’s life such as osteoporosis.  Even though athletes need to pay special attention to their bone health, the general recommendations to support bone health is not very different from the general population and it is not clear whether the recommendations for the general population will adequately support an athlete’s needs through periods of intense training.  Athletes should consider consuming additional supplements if their food preferences or intolerances do not allow them to get sufficient nutrients needed to support their bone health.  Athletes also need to be aware of their energy intake and expenditure to ensure they are maintaining a positive energy balance. 

Reference Article

SSE #201: Nutrition and Athlete Bone Health

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the provided key nutrients for bone health to apply the practical applications to ensure your athlete receives the nutrients needed to support their bone health. 
  • Describe the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure and how they contribute to energy balance. 
  • Discuss other nutrient issues that are specific to athletes and how they can negatively impact an athlete’s overall health and bone health. 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

10/07/2023

BOC

1

10/07/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

10/07/2023

CSCCa

1

10/07/2023

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sale_sse_201_a05_final.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE #198: Nutrition and athlete immune health: a new perspective

Sickness absence from training is incompatible with success in elite sport, which demands a consistently high training volume, i.e. the less sick, the more an athlete can train. Nutrient availability influences immunity because macro and micronutrients are involved in a multitude of immune processes. Macronutrients are involved in immune cell metabolism and protein synthesis and micronutrients are involved in antioxidant defenses. A new paradigm for exercise immunology is presented that considers resistance (the strength of the immune weaponry) and tolerance (the ability to endure microbes and dampen defense activity). This new paradigm of resistance and tolerance helps to explain why nutritional supplements with tolerogenic effects (e.g., probiotics, vitamin C and vitamin D) are the new targets, as these may reduce the infection burden in athletes.

Reference Article

SSE #198: Nutrition and athlete immune health: a new perspective

Course Objectives

  • Utilize this information to implement a strategy to improve your athlete’s immunity. 
  • Discuss the resistance and tolerance paradigms to plan how to keep your athlete healthy during increased training periods and travel.
  • Describe how tolerogenic supplements such as Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and probiotics may improve the body’s immunity.

 

 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/28/2023

BOC

1

05/08/2023

NSCA

0.1

05/08/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/08/2023

CSCCa

1

05/08/2023

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/nutrition-and-athlete-immune-health-a-new-perspective

SSE #196: New ideas about hydration and its impact on the athlete's brain, heart and muscles

Dehydration is known to impair physical performance.  Additionally, dehydration and hyperthermia take a toll on other systems and organs of the body such as the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems and the brain.  Dehydration is influenced by environmental conditions as well as the athlete’s training status, thus influencing an athlete’s core temperature The impact of dehydration varies among individuals and depends upon factors such as training status, intensity of exercise, environmental conditions and acclimatization status.  Hydrating during training or competition by consuming fluids is the best way to prevent or alleviate the effects of dehydration on performance. 

Reference Article

SSE #196: New ideas about hydration and its impact on the athlete's brain, heart and muscles

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the information to apply a hydration strategy to your personal or your athlete’s training or competition strategy.   
  • Describe the effects that dehydration and hyperthermia have on submaximal and maximal endurance capacity in varying environmental conditions. 
  • Discuss the systems that are negatively affected by dehydration and hyperthermia and how those systems influence each other when dehydrated. 

 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/27/2023

BOC

1

05/27/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/27/2023

CSCCa

1

05/27/2023

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/new-ideas-about-hydration-and-its-impact-on-the-athlete-s-brain-heart-and-muscles