COURSE CATALOG

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The Female Athlete: Energy and Nutrition Issues

This presentation will explore the importance of carbohydrate for female athletes and the sex differences in energy metabolism. In addition, Dr Rebecca Randell will discuss the key energy and nutrient issues most likely to occur in the female athlete, and methods for how health professionals can monitor energy and nutrition intakes to support both health and performance.

Course Objectives

  • Explain the importance of carbohydrate for female athletes and the sex differences in energy metabolism; 
  • Describe the potential challenges of applying Sports Nutrition recommendations to female athletes;  
  • Identify the health and performance implications of low energy availability;

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1.5

12/28/2026

BOC

1

12/28/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1.5

03/31/2024

SSE 241: Nutrition for Female Athlete Bone Health

Bone stress injuries (BSI) are one of the most insidious and challenging outcomes of REDs in female athletes. This is often because it is not until a BSI is diagnosed that the underlying, often prolonged and/or severe LEA, is discovered. BSI are the most common injury in athletes and two-to-four times more common among females than males with prevalence rates as high as 20% depending on sport type. Since BSI are usually preceded by decreases in bone mineral density (BMD), and since any meaningful change (positive or negative) in the structural characteristics of the bone tissue can take months or years to occur, impairments to bone health can be incredibly difficult to prevent, treat and reverse. In this course, Dr Ida Heikura explores the key nutritional challenges and opportunities to support optimal bone health in female athletes, followed by a stepwise action plan to prevent poor bone health.

 

Reference Article

SSE 241: Nutrition for Female Athlete Bone Health

Course Objectives

  • Describe the nutritional challenges and opportunities for optimal bone health in female athletes 
  • Discuss the three step-framework for preventing and treating issues related to bone health 
  • Utilize the REDs screening to identify athletes at greatest risk for bone health issues.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2026

BOC

1

12/19/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_241_003.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 240: Creatine Supplementation: New Insights and Perspectives on Bone and Brain Health

Creatine is a well-established dietary supplement which enhances resistance training adaptations across the lifespan, including muscle mass and performance. Beyond muscle, creatine has been shown to have favorable effects on measures of bone biology in older adults and disease state populations and measures of brain health and function across a variety of populations, including young adults who experienced traumatic brain injury. This review will outline recent advances and perspectives on how creatine supplementation functions to improve indices of bone and brain health across a variety of populations. 

Reference Article

SSE 240: Creatine Supplementation: New Insights and Perspectives on Bone and Brain Health

Course Objectives

  • Outline a general overview of how creatine supplementation enhances muscle mass and performance. 
  • Describe the mechanisms and highlight recent research examining creatine’s effects when combined with resistance training on bone tissue. 
  • Discuss recent research evaluating the effects of creatine supplementation on brain function and highlight the benefits when the brain is stressed (i.e., mental fatigue, sleep deprivation, aging, and hypoxia).  
  • Identify which neuromuscular diseases have been shown to benefit from creatine supplementation. 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2026

BOC

1

12/19/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_240_001.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 239: Contemporary Approaches to the Identification and Treatment of Iron Deficiency in Athletes

Iron is an essential micronutrient in the diet. However, athletes commonly present as iron deficient because of numerous mechanisms associated with exercise. An understanding of these mechanisms is important in our strategic approach to repleting and maintaining healthy iron stores Athletes presenting with an iron deficiency have several options with regard to addressing the problem. These include, an increase in overall nutrient intake from food, the use of oral iron supplements, or in severe cases, consideration of parenteral iron therapy. The approach taken to correct iron stores should be made in consideration of an athlete’s iron screening results, which should be standardized and collected on a routine basis.

 

Reference Article

SSE 239: Contemporary Approaches to the Identification and Treatment of Iron Deficiency in Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the mechanisms of iron regulation in athlete populations. 
  • Describe the three stages of iron deficiency according to the blood screening for serum ferritin, haemoglobin, and transferrin saturation. 
  • Identify the various options for iron supplementation in relation to the athlete’s blood screening results. 
  • Strategize how to approach iron supplementation when working with athletes who have gastrointestinal sensitivity.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2026

BOC

1

12/19/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_239_002.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 238: Micronutrient Considerations for Female Athletes

Vitamins and minerals are essential for numerous metabolic processes in the body, such as immune functioning, haematological adaption, energy metabolism and growth and repair. Athletes often have higher micronutrient requirements than the general population due to the increased utilisation and/or losses of micronutrients associated with exercise and training adaptation. Females can be at greater risk of micronutrient deficiencies and vitamin and/or mineral supplements can have a useful role in helping an athlete meet daily micronutrient needs. Iron, calcium, vitamin D and folate are identified as micronutrients which require greater attention for female athletes.

Reference Article

SSE 238: Micronutrient Considerations for Female Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Articulate key anthropometric and physiological differences between males and females. 
  • Discuss some of the reasons female athletes are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and the overarching nutritional factors that should be addressed.  
  • Define key vitamins and minerals which female athletes should pay specific attention to and their recommended dietary intakes.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/21/2026

BOC

1

11/21/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_238_003.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 237: Hydration in Physically Active Women

A significant amount of research has been conducted to understand body water regulation and the effects of hypohydration on thermoregulation, cardiovascular function, and performance during exercise in heat. However, women have been underrepresented in hydration research, accounting for less than ~30% of subjects tested in recent studies. Women have lower whole body sweating rate (WBSR) and sweat sodium concentrations as a population than men, but in most environments these differences are attributed to lower absolute workloads. Dr Lindsay Baker reviews the state of the literature, the impact of the menstrual cycle on hydration and how hypohydration (≥ 2% body mass loss) can adversely affect athletic performance in women.

Reference Article

SSE 237: Hydration in Physically Active Women

Course Objectives

  • Identify differences in sweating rate and composition between men and women 
  • Describe the impact of different phases in the menstrual cycle on thirst and fluid retention 
  • Define the physiological responses to dehydration during exercise in women

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

BOC

1

11/21/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/21/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_237_004.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 233: A Practitioner's Guide to Improving Sleep in Athletes

Athletes are at a higher risk for sleep problems due to lifestyle and sports-related factors, and frequently suffer from sleep-related complaints. There are sleep strategies for practitioners and coaches to emphasize that can help improve athletes’ sleep and performance. Drs Lambing and Bender review the importance of recurring sleep education and screening for sleep disorders and how the practitioner can support the athletes and promote good quality and quantity of sleep.

Reference Article

SSE 233: A Practitioner's Guide to Improving Sleep in Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Describe the importance of sleep screening and the best timing to perform a sleep screening 
  • Define the negative impact a poor night of sleep can have on mental and physical performance  
  • Identify strategies to promote good sleep hygiene 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/21/2026

BOC

1

11/21/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/gssi_sse_233_final.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 228: Functional Ingredients to Support Active Women

There are important sex-based differences that exist between men and women that may influence nutrition and dietary supplement recommendations. The hormonal fluctuations throughout the menstrual cycle, and with oral contraceptives, result in metabolic alterations which should be considered when making supplement considerations for active women. Body composition and protein metabolism also change throughout a woman’s lifespan. This course will detail the scientific evidence related to sex-specific nutritional recommendations.

Reference Article

SSE 228: Functional Ingredients to Support Active Women

Course Objectives

  • Describe a typical menstrual cycle and potential metabolic alterations during the phases 
  • Discuss hormonal contraceptive use and the impact on the menstrual cycle 
  • Identify and describe dietary supplements that may be beneficial to active women

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/15/2026

BOC

1

05/15/2026

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_228_004.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 224: Application of Sports Nutrition to Healthy Aging

Aging is associated with the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and decline in physical function which may result in reduced mobility and subsequent loss of independence. Exercise is a potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis in both athletic populations and in older adults. Dietary practices by athletes to augment performance and recovery may be relevant to the preservation of skeletal muscle mass and strength in older adults such as the supplementation with creatine, long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), and inorganic nitrate.

Reference Article

SSE 224: Application of Sports Nutrition to Healthy Aging

Course Objectives

  • Identify how sports nutrition can be applied to improve skeletal muscle in older adults.
  • Discuss the scientific evidence surrounding elevated protein recommendations for older adults.
  • Describe the evidence for the supplementation of creatine, n-3 PUFAs, and inorganic nitrate to benefit skeletal muscle health in older adults.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2025

BOC

1

12/19/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_224_a04.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 221: Fish Oil for Healthy Aging - Potential Applications for Master Athletes

Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are a class of biologically active fatty acids that play fundamental roles in the production of anti-inflammatory signalling molecules as well as serving as vital components of phospholipid membranes. The most well studied LC n-3 PUFAs are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3). Often associated with improved cardiovascular health, there is now emerging evidence that ingestion of LC n-3 PUFAs above population recommendations enhances skeletal muscle anabolism in older adults. Indeed, daily intake of ~ 5g/d of LC n-3 PUFAs has been shown to potentiate the muscle protein synthetic response to the infusion of insulin and amino acids and increase gains in skeletal muscle strength with resistance exercise training in older women. These findings suggest that LC n-3 PUFA intake could have ergogenic effects in older exercising adults. However, more recent work has failed to detect a positive impact of LC n-3 PUFA intake towards skeletal muscle in older persons. Yet, few studies have been conducted in highly-trained older adults, or ‘master athletes’ thus it is unclear if there is a benefit to increased LC n-3 PUFA  intake in this specific population. Aside from the potential ergogenic benefit, as some older adults possess sub-optimal LC n-3 PUFA status, there may be utility in increasing LC n-3 PUFAs ingestion in older persons to support healthy aging. 

Reference Article

SSE 221: Fish Oil for Healthy Aging - Potential Applications for Master Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Describe the current state of evidence regarding the impact of LC n-3 PUFA intake on the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to exercise training in older persons.  
  • Define the strengths and limitations of assessing LC n-3 PUFA status in the context of the Sport and Exercise Science. 
  • Identify various food and supplemental sources of LC n-3 PUFAs that could be used to increase LC n-3 PUFA intake.  
 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

12/19/2025

BOC

1

12/19/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse221_caioh_chrism_nov_a7.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 219: Protein requirements of master athletes: do they need more than their younger contemporaries?

Dietary protein is essential for an athlete’s recovery and adaptation as it provides the requisite amino acid building blocks to repair and remodeling old and/or damaged proteins, especially within working skeletal muscle. Amino acids may also be used as a source of fuel during exercise that requires high mitochondrial flux (e.g. repeated sprint and steady state endurance exercise) and therefore must be consumed in the diet to replenish these exercise-induced losses of the essential amino acids (e.g. branched chain amino acids). The majority of research on protein requirements for athletes have been performed in young individuals, which opens debate as to whether Master athletes would require similar or greater intakes. Available evidence suggest current recommendations for younger athletes would also translate to Master athletes. As opposed to daily protein targets that have been the focus of past research, current practice suggests the most efficient strategy to consume the daily protein requirement is to focus on consuming meals with a moderate amount of protein spaced regularly throughout the day. There is little evidence to suggest that protein requirements in older Master athletes are different between men and women, although estrogen is generally ‘protein-sparing’ and therefore can reduce protein requirements by ~10-15%. There appears to be an opportunity to educate Master athletes as to their meal protein requirements, which may be a safe and effective way to improve their training recovery and adaptation. 

Reference Article

SSE 219: Protein requirements of master athletes: do they need more than their younger contemporaries?

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the available information on dietary protein recommendations when designing your athlete’s nutrition plan.
  • Describe the how dietary protein predominantly supports an athlete’s training and recovery 
  • Discuss why protein recommendations may not be affected by age in Master athletes 
  • Describe how proper meal planning (frequency and protein amount) can help Master athletes meet their daily protein recommendations
 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/09/2025

BOC

1

11/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/moore_protein_requirement_sse219.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 216: Youth Athlete Development and Nutrition

Adolescence is a period of natural experimentation and is particularly important in terms of establishing the connection between diet, exercise and body image. An adolescent’s peers become increasingly powerful moderators of all behaviors, including eating. The pathway to elite sports performance is complex, and rarely forecast by success at junior levels. Stakeholders involved in managing developing athletes have a responsibility to prioritize sound physical and mental development while integrating principles of sport nutrition success. 

Reference Article

SSE 216: Youth Athlete Development and Nutrition

Course Objectives

  • Describe the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders (adults) in managing the development of youth athletes. 
  • Define the criteria needed to determine energy needs for sport as well as growth and development in youth athletes.  
  • Identify macronutrient needs of youth athletes and micronutrients at most risk for insufficiency and deficiency in youth athletes. 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/09/2025

BOC

1

11/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/desbrow_sse216.pdf?sfvrsn=2

Methods to Keep the Female Athlete Healthy: From Mental to Physical Health

While there is a disparity in sports performance research on female athletes, several experts in the field are making progress in furthering the understanding of the unique characteristics and needs of this population. From physiological and nutritional needs, to mental health and performance considerations, hear Dr Wendy Borlabi, Dr Trent Stellingwerff, Dr Abbie Smith-Ryan and Dr Sara Oikawa cover methods to keep the female athlete healthy. 

Reference Article

Methods to Keep the Female Athlete Healthy: From Mental to Physical Health

Course Objectives

  • Discuss how low energy availability (LEA) “exposure” does not always lead to Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDs) and elements of the practical application of LEA to optimize health and performance.
  • Understand the initial data and known physiological differences that support evidence-based application for ingredients used by female athletes and discuss the possible implications.
  • Describe sex differences in skeletal muscle morphology and protein metabolism and identify gaps in the scientific literature related to female athlete specific protein research. 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

2.25

07/29/2025

BOC

2.25

07/29/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

2.25

03/31/2024

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/educational-materials/webinar-handouts/acsm-2022-pre-con-handouts---all-files.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 215: Practical Approaches to Nutrition for Female Athletes

The majority of published sport nutrition recommendations are based on studies conducted with male athletes. In female athletes, the menstrual cycle may affect optimal nutrition strategies for performance, but menstrual cycles can be quite variable. Authors Bryan Holtzman and Kate Ackerman review the nutritional recommendations for female athletes from a variety of perspectives. Within the review, the energetic requirements for athletes and the negative effects of failing to meet these requirements are discussed. The authors also establish a model for meeting nutritional needs of increasing complexity and personalization for female athletes and provide baseline recommendations for female athletes. This course aims to provide practical advice for athletes, coaches, physicians, and other members of the athlete entourage.

Reference Article

SSE 215: Practical Approaches to Nutrition for Female Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Define energy availability and the impact of failing to meet energy needs in female athletes 
  • Describe unique physiological considerations for female athletes related to the menstrual cycle. 
  • Identify micronutrients of particular interest for female athletes and baseline recommendations for intake.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/26/2025

BOC

1

05/26/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/final-gssi_sse_215.pdf?sfvrsn=2

Health and Performance Considerations for Female Soccer Players

Female soccer players face a variety of physical demands related to their sport but also must manage health factors unique to females. Through a strong nutrition plan, the female soccer player can fuel appopiately, managing energy availability and supporting athletic performance while maintaining physical health in the short and long term. Dr. Rebecca Randell will discuss the demands placed on the female soccer player, how menstruation and energy availability impact health and performance as well as recommendations to help the athlete and recover throughout the season.

Reference Article

Health and Performance Considerations for Female Soccer Players

Course Objectives

  • Discuss health considerations for female soccer players
  • Utilize nutritional recommendations and customize for female soccer players
  • Describe the knowledge gaps in the existing literature

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

.75

02/09/2025

BOC

.75

02/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

.75

03/31/2024

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/educational-materials/webinar-handouts/health-and-performance-considerations-for-female-soccer-players.pdf?sfvrsn=4

SSE #213: Cannabidiol (CBD) and the athlete: claims, evidence, prevalence and safety concerns

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant and is no longer prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency; however, all other cannabinoids remain on the prohibited list. The legal status of CBD is complicated and varies from country to country. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the country (and state) specific legal status of CBD. Dr. Graeme Close and colleagues discuss the benefits of CBD that have been reported both anecdotally and within the literature as well as the risks with CBD use on health, safety and potential for inadvertent doping via the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or other cannabinoids in CBD supplements. 

Reference Article

SSE #213: Cannabidiol (CBD) and the athlete: claims, evidence, prevalence and safety concerns

Course Objectives

  • Describe an overview of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) 

  • Appraise the current evidence and efficacy in relation to CBD use in sport 

  • Discuss the issues and risks surrounding inadvertent doping following the use of CBD

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

01/26/2025

BOC

1

01/26/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

03/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/cannabidiol-(cbd)-and-the-athlete-claims-evidence-prevalence-and-safety-concerns

Unique Aspects of the Female Endurance Athlete

Session 3 from the 2021 ACSM/GSSI Go the Distance Summer Symposium features Kathryn Ackerman MD, MPH, FACSM, Physician, Sports Medicine Division and Director, Female Athlete Program at Boston Children’s Hospital. Dr. Ackerman discusses the current state of the literature related to sports nutrition and female athletes as well as unique challenges that female athletes face. Additionally, Dr Ackerman addresses the many considerations that must be accounted for when developing a nutrition strategy for female athletes. 

Course Objectives

Discuss basis for female athelte sports nutrition recommendations to date

Describe important considerations for accurate female sports and nutrition research

Describe causes and consequences of low energy availability

 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

0.75

07/14/2024

CSCCa

0.75

07/14/2024