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SSE 220: Plant versus animal-based proteins to support muscle conditioning

Because of the discussions on more sustainable food production and the need to improve lifestyle and health, there is a growing interest in the transition towards consuming a more plant-based diet. As a result, daily protein intake will be derived more from the consumption of plant-based proteins at the expense of animal-based proteins. There are many questions on whether this has impact on the capacity of an athlete to recover and recondition following exercise. So far, basic research indicates that the ingestion of plant-derived proteins may not stimulate muscle protein synthesis to the same extent when compared to the ingestion of an equivalent amount of animal-derived proteins. The proposed lesser anabolic properties of plant- versus animal-based proteins have been attributed to differences in protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics. Furthermore, most plant-derived proteins have lower essential amino acid contents and can be deficient in one or more specific amino acids. However, it should be noted that very few studies have directly compared muscle protein synthesis rates following the ingestion of plant- versus high quality animal-derived proteins. Theoretically, a lower bioavailability and/or functionality of plant-based protein sources and/or plant-derived protein concentrates may result in greater daily protein requirements for athletes transitioning towards a (more) plant-based diet. However, as athletes typically consume a diet that provides more than 1.5 g protein per day, a lesser protein bioavailability or protein quality will unlikely compromise muscle conditioning in athletes adopting a (more) plant-based diet. However, when athletes are changing to a plant-based diet under conditions of low(er) energy and/or protein intake, a sports dietitian should be consulted to ensure ample protein provision.

Reference Article

SSE 220: Plant versus animal-based proteins to support muscle conditioning

Course Objectives

  • Define the scientific background on the proposed lesser capacity of plant-based protein sources or plant-derived proteins to stimulate muscle protein synthesis when compared to the ingestion of an equivalent amount of high-quality, animal-based protein. 
  • Describe the differences in the bioavailability of protein from plant- versus animal-based protein sources and the intrinsic differences between plant- versus animal-derived proteins.  
  • Discuss the proposed impact of the transition towards a (more) plant-based diet on protein intake, protein intake requirements, and the capacity to recover and recondition after exercise.
 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/09/2025

BOC

1

11/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/vanloon_sse220.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 219: Protein requirements of master athletes: do they need more than their younger contemporaries?

Dietary protein is essential for an athlete’s recovery and adaptation as it provides the requisite amino acid building blocks to repair and remodeling old and/or damaged proteins, especially within working skeletal muscle. Amino acids may also be used as a source of fuel during exercise that requires high mitochondrial flux (e.g. repeated sprint and steady state endurance exercise) and therefore must be consumed in the diet to replenish these exercise-induced losses of the essential amino acids (e.g. branched chain amino acids). The majority of research on protein requirements for athletes have been performed in young individuals, which opens debate as to whether Master athletes would require similar or greater intakes. Available evidence suggest current recommendations for younger athletes would also translate to Master athletes. As opposed to daily protein targets that have been the focus of past research, current practice suggests the most efficient strategy to consume the daily protein requirement is to focus on consuming meals with a moderate amount of protein spaced regularly throughout the day. There is little evidence to suggest that protein requirements in older Master athletes are different between men and women, although estrogen is generally ‘protein-sparing’ and therefore can reduce protein requirements by ~10-15%. There appears to be an opportunity to educate Master athletes as to their meal protein requirements, which may be a safe and effective way to improve their training recovery and adaptation. 

Reference Article

SSE 219: Protein requirements of master athletes: do they need more than their younger contemporaries?

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the available information on dietary protein recommendations when designing your athlete’s nutrition plan.
  • Describe the how dietary protein predominantly supports an athlete’s training and recovery 
  • Discuss why protein recommendations may not be affected by age in Master athletes 
  • Describe how proper meal planning (frequency and protein amount) can help Master athletes meet their daily protein recommendations
 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/09/2025

BOC

1

11/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/moore_protein_requirement_sse219.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE 216: Youth Athlete Development and Nutrition

Adolescence is a period of natural experimentation and is particularly important in terms of establishing the connection between diet, exercise and body image. An adolescent’s peers become increasingly powerful moderators of all behaviors, including eating. The pathway to elite sports performance is complex, and rarely forecast by success at junior levels. Stakeholders involved in managing developing athletes have a responsibility to prioritize sound physical and mental development while integrating principles of sport nutrition success. 

Reference Article

SSE 216: Youth Athlete Development and Nutrition

Course Objectives

  • Describe the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders (adults) in managing the development of youth athletes. 
  • Define the criteria needed to determine energy needs for sport as well as growth and development in youth athletes.  
  • Identify macronutrient needs of youth athletes and micronutrients at most risk for insufficiency and deficiency in youth athletes. 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

11/09/2025

BOC

1

11/09/2025

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/31/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/desbrow_sse216.pdf?sfvrsn=2

Endurance Nutrition: How do you fuel for success?

Session 1 from the 2021 ACSM/GSSI Go the Distance Summer Symposium features Matt Pahnke PhD of GSSI and U.S. Long-Distance runner Molly Huddle. Dr. Pahnke presents the science and recommendations for fueling endurance athletes and then discusses how to utilize those recommendations in practice with Molly. Each athlete is unique and personalizing sports nutrition recommendations is key to helping an endurance athlete build a successful training and race day nutrition plan.  

Course Objectives

Idenfity the key sports nutrition recomendations for endurance athletes

Discuss and apply the scientific recommendations for enduracne sports nutrition in a practical setting

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

.75

07/14/2024

CSCCa

0.75

07/14/2024

SSE #208: An update on beta-alanine supplementation for athletes

Fatigue during high intensity sports or activities (~1-10 minutes in length) is caused by several components with strong evidence that muscle acidosis via accumulating hydrogen ions is a key performance inhibitor.  To address this issue, skeletal muscle has intra and extracellular buffering mechanisms to attenuate exercise induced acidosis.  Carnosine is an intracellular buffer that is key in slowing the decline of muscle pH.  Carnosine has a nitrogen containing imidazole side ring which accepts or buffers hydrogen.  This buffering can contribute as much as 15% of total buffering capacity.  Additionally, carnosine has been shown to be a calcium/hydrogen exchanger, delivering calcium back to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and hydrogen away to the cell membrane.  This suggests that carnosine may increase calcium sensitivity and muscle contraction efficiency.  Plasma beta-alanine is the rate limiting substrate of carnosine.  Approximately 3-6 g/d of beta-alanine supplementation over at least four weeks can elevate muscle carnosine stores by 30-60%.  Several meta-analyses have been conducted and has shown 2-3% increased performance in non-elite athletes, followed with just 0.5-1% increased performance in elite athletes. 

Reference Article

SSE #208: An update on beta-alanine supplementation for athletes

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the information provided in this SSE to determine whether beta-alanine supplementation is right for your athlete and their training needs. 
  • Describe the mechanisms that carnosine buffers hydrogen and exchanges calcium/hydrogen. 
  • Discuss future applied research for beta-alanine and how else beta-alanine can be applied to non-elite and elite athletes.  

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

06/24/2024

BOC

1

06/23/2024

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

06/23/2024

CSCCa

1

06/23/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/stellingwerff_sse_208_a03.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE #206: Nutritional factors that affect fat oxidation rates during exercise

During exercise, both fat and carbohydrate are metabolized to produce energy.  At lower intensities and rest, fat is the predominate substrate that is metabolized.  As intensity increases, carbohydrate metabolism increases and fat metabolism decreases.  Incremental exercise tests have been developed on both a cycle ergometer and treadmill to measure the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and at what intensity MFO occurs (FATMAX).  It has been shown that there is large individual variation in MFO and FATMAX, and that individuals may have a unique FATMAX curve.  Increasing an athlete’s fat oxidation may be beneficial as it could preserve the limited amount of muscle and liver glycogen, which could then delay fatigue.  Several nutritional supplements thought to increase fat oxidation have been studied, such as; green tea, New Zealand blackcurrants, caffeine, and Omega-3.  In addition to supplementation, training strategies to decrease muscle and liver glycogen availability prior to exercise have been shown to increase fat oxidation during exercise.  It is important to note that an increase in fat oxidation during exercise has not been associated with improved performance.

Reference Article

SSE #206: Nutritional factors that affect fat oxidation rates during exercise

Course Objectives

  •  Utilize the information presented in this SSE and discuss the different supplements that may increase fat oxidation.
  • Describe Maximal Fat Oxidation and FATMAX and how ingesting carbohydrate may affect the fat oxidation curve.
  • Discuss the various strategies to decrease muscle and liver glycogen availability and how it may lead to an increase in fat oxidation.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

10/20/2023

BOC

1

10/20/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

10/20/2023

CSCCa

1

10/20/2023

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/randell-spriet_sse_206_a03.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE #199: Nutrition Recommendations for Altitude Training

High altitude training camps are commonly used by endurance athletes in order to increase their fitness prior to competition.   Energy availability (EA) requirements may be altered by low to moderate altitudes, and it is suggested that EA may play a role in an athlete’s ability to adjusts to hypoxic conditions.  Iron is a micronutrient with known importance to an athlete’s health while at altitude and is important for increasing hemoglobin mass.  While studies investigating physiological adaptations at extreme altitudes (>3,000 m.) have been conducted, there is a call for more studies at low to moderate altitudes (1,600-2,400 m.).  Since the effects of training at low to moderate altitudes are not yet fully confirmed, it is best to apply sea-level nutrition and hydration guidelines to an athlete’s training at altitude. 

Reference Article

SSE #199: Nutrition Recommendations for Altitude Training

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the monitoring and nutritional recommendations from this SSE during an athlete’s high-altitude training. 
  • Discuss the initial hypoxic effects an athlete may experience and how to best prevent or alleviate the negative symptoms. 
  • Define energy availability and describe how an athlete’s energy needs may change while training at altitude.  

 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

10/07/2023

BOC

1

10/07/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

10/07/2023

CSCCa

1

10/07/2023

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/sse_altitudenutritionarticle_v3.pdf?sfvrsn=2

Monitoring Training Load and Recovery in Collegiate Athletes

Athlete monitoring is one of the key foundational pieces of any training program to ensure athletes are ready to compete at the highest level. In this presentation, Eric Freese, PhD, and Principal Scientist at the Gatorade Sports Science Institute shares what he believes to be the good and the bad of athlete monitoring, breaks down the theoretical principles of athlete monitoring and shares the current understanding of it, and shares some of the latest findings in football athletes.  

Reference Article

Monitoring Training Load and Recovery in Collegiate Athletes

Course Objectives

  • Identify the principles of athlete monitoring 
  • Describe how internal and  external load affect an athlete’s performance 
  • Discuss the basics of how to implement an impactful athlete monitoring program 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

0.5

08/21/2023

BOC

0.5

08/21/2023

CSCCa

1

08/21/2023

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/educational-materials/webinar-handouts/handout-load-monitoring-eric-freese_a04.pdf?sfvrsn=2

Hydration: Application & Innovation

This session, developed by the team at Performance 365 in partnership with the Gatorade Sports Science Institute and presented by Sports Dietitian Jen Ketterly, provides an overview on hydration strategies and explores the applications and factors impacting intake that have been affected by COVID-19.  Disclaimer: Jen Ketterly is a founding member of the Performance 365 consulting group and this presentation was sponsored by the Gatorade Sports Science Institute.

Reference Article

Hydration: Application & Innovation

Course Objectives

  • Provide fluid recommendations for athletes 
  • Educate athletes and provide effective strategies for acclimatization
  • Assess athlete fluid status
  • Describe the factors that impact intake  
 

 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

0.5

08/11/2023

BOC

0.75

08/11/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

0.5

08/11/2023

CSCCa

.5

08/11/2023

Reference Article

http://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/educational-materials/webinar-handouts/hydration-application-and-innovation-bibliography.pdf?sfvrsn=2

Hygiene & Food Safety Considerations for Return to Play

This session, developed by the team at Performance 365 in partnership with the Gatorade Sports Science Institute shares hygiene and food safety considerations for athletes and sports performance professionals to take into account to ensure safe return to play in the current environment. Sports Dietitian Leslie Bonci discusses best practices for on-the-field hydration, at-home and away fueling, travel guidelines and more.  

Course Objectives

  • Review the critical components of a hazard analysis and the application to the sports environment 
  • Develop protocols to safeguard health and identify best practices to comply with COVID-19 recommended guidelines 
  • Develop food safety recommendations for athletes and their support staff/family 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

0.5

08/11/2023

BOC

0.5

08/11/2023

CSCCa

.5

08/11/2023

SSE #195: Fruit derived polyphenol supplementation for performance and recovery

The mechanism of how polyphenol supplementation affects performance is complex and not fully understood.  Polyphenols are derived from fruits and vegetables and are associated with color and taste.  Approximately 90% of polyphenols are not absorbed in the small intestine, thus they are subsequently made available by colon gut bacteria in the source of phenolic acids.  The phenolic acids are then able to be absorbed.  Beneficial effects of polyphenol supplementation may include improved endurance, repeated sprint performance, and faster recovery of muscle strength however, only a small number of studies have been conducted to date and more research is needed to understand the ergogenic potential of polyphenol supplementation. 

Reference Article

SSE #195: Fruit derived polyphenol supplementation for performance and recovery

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the evidence behind the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasoactive properties of polyphenol supplementation to improve exercise performance and muscle recovery in athletes.
  • Discuss the amounts and timing of polyphenol supplementation needed to improve exercise performance and muscle recovery in different trained populations.
  • Describe the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms and pathways of polyphenol supplementation.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/26/2023

BOC

1

05/26/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/26/2023

CSCCa

1

05/26/2023

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/fruit-derived-polyphenol-supplementation-for-performance-and-recovery

Sleep tactics for better athlete health and performance

Optimal sleep is critical for health and is considered one of the most potent performance enhancers available. During sleep, many processes take place including repairing and rebuilding muscle, enhancing immune function, and the pruning and forming of new memories. For an athlete, sub-optimal sleep can lead to impaired mood, shorter time to exhaustion, poor nutrition choices, and greater injury risk. Sleep Scientist Amy Bender, MS, PhD will discuss the role of the athletic trainer and sports health practitioners to ensure athletes get sufficient quantity, quality and timing of sleep – so athletes can perform better on and off the field. 

Course Objectives

  • Define what constitutes good sleep including optimal sleep quantity, quality, and timing of sleep. 
  • Dispel sleep myths for yourself and translate that knowledge into sleep education for your athletes in a meaningful way 
  • Implement sleep screening strategies and identification of maladaptive sleep behaviors such in the athletes you are working with 
  • Implement other sleep strategies including “banking sleep” and napping  
 

 

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/21/2023

NSCA

0.2

05/21/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/21/2023

CSCCa

1

05/21/2023