January 2017


Lindsay B. Baker, PhD

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SSE #90

Diabetes, Exercise and Competitive Sports

Regular exercise is highly recommended for many people who have either Type 1 DM or Type 2 DM diabetes. During exercise there is a rapid uptake of glucose from the blood and people with diabetes must adjust their pre-exercise insulin dosage and carbohydrate intake, before, during and after exercise. The benefits of regular exercise in people with diabetes are similar to those in persons without the disease as long as the diabetic is in good glucose control and has no major complications of the disease.

Peter A. Farrell, Ph.D.

September 2006


SSE #89

The Juvenile Obesity Epidemic: Strike Back with Physical Activity

The last three decades have seen a dramatic surge in prevalence of children and adolescent obesity in many developed and underdeveloped countries. Even though the causes of this epidemic are not clear, the reduction in time spent in physical activity and the increase in sedentary pursuits such as TV viewing and computer games are likely contributing factors.

\r\n\r\nProper management of juvenile obesity should include nutritional changes, behavior modification and a physically active lifestyle.

Oded Bar-Or, M.D.

September 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition, Athlete Health

SSE #88

Hyponatremia in Athletes

Hyponatremia is a rare disorder that results from a combination of abnormal water retention and/or sodium loss. Water retention can occur from excessive water retention by the kidneys or from drinking too much water. A combination of excessive drinking and salt loss reduces plasma sodium concentration. This can prompt a cascade of events that might result in a rapid and dangerous swelling of the brain that could cause seizures, coma, and even death.

The risk of hyponatremia can be reduced by making certain that fluid intake does not exceed sweat loss and by ingesting sodium containing beverages or foods to help replace the sodium lost in sweat.

Bob Murray, John Stofan, E. Randy Eichner

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #86

Heat Stroke in Sports: Causes, Prevention and Treatment

Heat stroke is typically caused by a combination of environmental, physical, and behavioral factors. Dr. Eichner summarizes the causes that contribute to this illness, its treatment, and also the preventive measures to protect the athletes. Heat stroke is very serious. Preventing this illness involves acclimation, hydration, pacing, cooling and vigilance. It is important to recognize its early symptoms and to provide fast and effective treatment. Cooling the athlete is the first priority before transporting to the emergency room. This can save lives.

E. Randy Eichner, M.D.

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #85

Exercise, Antioxidants, and Cardioprotection

Exercise, Antioxidants and Cardioprotection Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in the United States. Regular exercise and dietary intake of adequate nutritional antioxidants are lifestyle factors that can provide protection against this threat. Dr. Scott Powers's review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the cardioprotective effects of both exercise and dietary antioxidants.

Scott K. Powers, Ph.D., Ed.D.

August 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #82

Optimizing Bone Health: Impact of Nutrition, Exercise, and Hormones

Osteoporosis is a preventable condition, but the fact is that too few Americans (men and women) ingest enough calcium or exercise enough to\r\nprevent it. Everyone should try to maximize peak bone mass by age 30 and attempt to slow the rate of loss afterwards. The latest research on osteoporosis, exercise to maximize peak bone mass, and the role of calcium intake are issues addressed in this article by Dr. Susan Bloomfield

Susan A. Bloomfield, Ph.D.

August 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #81

Anemia And Blood Boosting

Various aspects of anemia and its relation to sport are explored in this article by Dr. Randy Eichner. The use of EPO for blood boosting is also covered. Tips on how to get more iron into the diet and conditions associated with low dietary iron are listed in the supplement.

E. Randy Eichner, M.D.

August 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #80

Carbohydrates, Hormones, and Endurance Performance

Strenuous prolonged exercise causes a decrease in blood glucose and a corresponding increase in concentrations of the glucoregulatory hormones. At the same time blood insulin levels fall. Carbohydrate ingestion during endurance exercise blunts these hormonal alterations and can help spare muscle glycogen, maintain blood glucose and therby delaying fatigue.

J. Mark Davis, Ph.D., Adrienne S. Brown, M.A.

August 2006

Topics: Carbohydrate, Training & Performance

SSE #79

Dietary Carbohydrate & Performance of Brief, Intense Exercise

How beneficial is dietary carbohydrate when your sport consists of short repeated bursts of high power? Studies examining resistance exercise, single and repeated sprints, and the role of carbohydrate as a fuel are contained in this latest publication. The supplement includes a formula to calculate your personal carbohydrate needs, instructions for analyzing your own diet, and a table illustrating the carbohydrate content of common foods.

Janet Walberg-Rankin, Ph.D.

August 2006

Topics: Carbohydrate, Training & Performance

SSE #77

Nutrition For Child And Adolescent Athletes

Dr. Oded Bar-Or discusses the physiological differences between children, adolescents and adults in this latest article. Protein requirements, fluid and electrolyte requirements and recommendations for optimal nutrition are provided in the article and supplement.

Oded Bar-Or, M.D.

August 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition, Athlete Health

SSE #76

Forfeit The Fat, Leave The Lean: Optimizing Weight Loss For Athletes

For athletes and active individuals striving to reduce body fat in order to gain a performance benefit, dietary guidelines and strategies for weightmanagement are provided in this article. Current research on fat intake,protein metabolism, and carbohydrate needs is reviewed. By applying the suggestions provided, the athlete will have the tools to insure a safe and successful weight loss program.

Janet Walberg-Rankin, Ph.D., Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia

August 2006

Topics: Body Composition

SSE #74

Screening For Risk Of Cardiac Death In Young Athletes

The sudden cardiac-related death of an athlete during a sports event is a particularly poignant tragedy. Participation in sports--a wholesome pursuit that provides important physical and psychosocial benefits--is not expected to place young, apparently healthy competitors at risk for cardiovascular collapse. When sudden deaths occur in elite-level athletes who have national media exposure, the concerns become magnified. How safe is sports play? What causes these tragic events? How can they be prevented?

Thomas W. Rowland, M.D.

July 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #72

Exercise, Macronutrient Balance, and Body Weight Regulation

The accumulation of excess body fat appears to be fundamentally a problem resulting from inadequate fat oxidation relative to intake. An increase in body fat mass incrreases the concentration of free fatty acids in the blood, and this increased availability of lipid fuel is associated with increased fat oxidation. The increase in fat utilization that accompanies obesity helps re-establish a new equilibrium between fat intake and fat oxidation that serves to stabilize body weight, albeit at the cost of obesity. Because exercise can increase total daily energy expenditure and fat oxidation, chronic exercise can help prevent expansion of the adipose tissue mass, allowing the physically active individual to achieve fat balance at a lower body fat mass.

Christopher L. Melby, Dr.P.H., James O. Hill, Ph.D.

July 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition, Body Composition

SSE #70

Nutrition Needs for Team Sport

There is a common belief that there are sport-specific diets. The truth is that there are only people-specific diets. The first nutritional requirement for athletes and their sports fans is a well-balanced diet that contains a wide range of foods and covers daily energy expenditure. As for the composition of this diet, health professionals recommend that it should be high in carbohydrate and low in fat (FAO/WHO, 1998). Ensuring that athletes follow these guidelines is the first step in the successful nutritional support for sports participation.

Clyde Williams, Ph.D. and Ceri W. Nicholas, Ph.D.

July 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition

SSE #69

Immunity in Athletes: Current Issues

Publications on the topic of exercise immunology date from late in the 19th century, but it was not until the mid-1980s that a significant number of investigators worldwide devoted their resources to this area of research endeavor. From 1900 to 1997, just under 900 papers on exercise immunology were published, with 75% of these appearing in the 1990s. \r\n\r\n

David C. Nieman, DrPH, FACSM

July 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #67

Anti-Inflamatory Drugs, Kidney Function, and Exercise

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used by competitive athletes and recreational exercisers because of their analgesic (pain reduction) and anti-inflammatory benefits. A list of common NSAIDs and other analgesics available over-the-counter (OTC) is presented in Table 1 (Physicians' Desk Reference, 1997).

Bill Farquhar, M.S. and W. Larry Kenney, Ph.D.

July 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #66

Spinal Cord Injury and Exercise in the Heat

Opportunities to compete in the Para-Olympics, advances in medical treatment and therapies for functional recovery of the disabled, and the recognition that physical activity is beneficial for the health of everyone, abled or disabled, have contributed to increased participation of disabled individuals in regular physical exercise. Like able-bodied athletes, disabled athletes face limitations to performance-fatigue, nutrition and fluid needs, and the possibility of heat exhaustion. In this report, we will discuss thermoregulation and cardiovascular function in the disabled athlete. We will make several recommendations to reduce the chance of heat illness and to delay fatigue in the disabled athlete.\r\n

Maria T.E. Hopman, Ph.D., Rob A. Binkhorst, Ph.D.

July 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #61

Carbohydrates, Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Endurance: The Central Fatigue Hypothesis

The central fatigue hypothesis suggests that increased brain serotonin (5-HT) can cause a deterioration in sport and exercise performance. Whether branched-chain amino acid supplementation can effect performance remains uncertain.

J. Mark Davis, Ph.D.

June 2006

Topics: Carbohydrate, Supplements

SSE #60

Caffeine and Exercise Performance

Moderate doses of caffeine ingested 1 h prior to exercise appears to enhance performance during short term high intense cycling lasting ~ 5 min. in the laboratory and in simulated 1500-m race time.

Terry E. Graham, Ph.D. and Lawrence L. Spriet, Ph.D.

June 2006

Topics: Supplements, Training & Performance

SSE #59

Fat Metabolism During Exercise: New Concepts

During intense exercise carbohydrate (not fat) can be mobilized and oxidized rapidly enough to meet the energy requirements for intense muscular contractions.

Edward F. Coyle, Ph.D.

June 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition


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