Published

January 2017

Author

Lindsay B. Baker, PhD

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Topics

SSE #43

Exercise Effects on Children's Health

Participating in sports and/or an exercise program can be important for a child's development and health status. While too much exercise may pose health risks, more children could benefit by increasing their physical activity level.

Melvin H. Williams, Ph.D.

April 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #44

The Older Athlete: Exercise in Hot Environments

Adequate fluid intake before, during and after exercise in hot conditions should be emphasized for older exercisers. Aerobic fitness, acclimation and hydration status are important factors to consider when exercising in the heat.

W. Larry Kenney, Ph.D.

April 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #49

Children's Responses to Exercise in Hot Climates: Implications for Performance and Health

Children's physiologic responses to exercise are generally similar to those of adults, but there are several ageand maturation-related differences in their responses. For example, children respond to the combined stresses of exercise and climatic heat differently than do adults (Table 1).\r\n\r\n\r\n

SSE #51

Children's Responses to Exercise in Cold Climates: Health Implications

Exercise and climatic heat both induce heat stress. Their synergistic effect, when excessive, may impair physical and cognitive performance, cause hyperthermia, and be detrimental to a child's well-being and health. In contrast, when the body is exposed to a cold environment, exercise-induced thermogenesis will help to prevent excessive body cooling. Therefore, hypothermia (core body temperature of 35o C or less) is more likely to occur during rest than during exercise.

Oded Bar-Or, M.D.

May 2006

Topics: Athlete Health, Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #56

Contagious Infections in Competitive Sports

Many athletes believe that physical training enhances immunity and helps prevent upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) like the common cold or \"flu\" (influenza). They also believe that physical activity and fitness help them overcome any minor infections they do get. On the other hand, based largely on anecdotes and on popularization of a link between physical or psychological stress and \"impaired immunity,\" the athletic community in general seems persuaded that intensive training, exhaustive exercise, or competition predisposes athletes to infections.

E. Randy Eichner, M.D.

June 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #58

The Role of Red Meat in an Athlete's Diet

Iron & zinc are the two nutrients most often deficient in vegetarian or modified-vegetarian diets. Athletes who choose to exclude meat from their diets must carefully plan diets to enhance nutrient availability, particularly for iron and zinc.

Susan M. Kleiner, Ph.D., R.D.

June 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition

SSE #61

Carbohydrates, Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Endurance: The Central Fatigue Hypothesis

The central fatigue hypothesis suggests that increased brain serotonin (5-HT) can cause a deterioration in sport and exercise performance. Whether branched-chain amino acid supplementation can effect performance remains uncertain.

J. Mark Davis, Ph.D.

June 2006

Topics: Carbohydrate, Supplements

SSE #66

Spinal Cord Injury and Exercise in the Heat

Opportunities to compete in the Para-Olympics, advances in medical treatment and therapies for functional recovery of the disabled, and the recognition that physical activity is beneficial for the health of everyone, abled or disabled, have contributed to increased participation of disabled individuals in regular physical exercise. Like able-bodied athletes, disabled athletes face limitations to performance-fatigue, nutrition and fluid needs, and the possibility of heat exhaustion. In this report, we will discuss thermoregulation and cardiovascular function in the disabled athlete. We will make several recommendations to reduce the chance of heat illness and to delay fatigue in the disabled athlete.\r\n

Maria T.E. Hopman, Ph.D., Rob A. Binkhorst, Ph.D.

July 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #67

Anti-Inflamatory Drugs, Kidney Function, and Exercise

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used by competitive athletes and recreational exercisers because of their analgesic (pain reduction) and anti-inflammatory benefits. A list of common NSAIDs and other analgesics available over-the-counter (OTC) is presented in Table 1 (Physicians' Desk Reference, 1997).

Bill Farquhar, M.S. and W. Larry Kenney, Ph.D.

July 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #77

Nutrition For Child And Adolescent Athletes

Dr. Oded Bar-Or discusses the physiological differences between children, adolescents and adults in this latest article. Protein requirements, fluid and electrolyte requirements and recommendations for optimal nutrition are provided in the article and supplement.

Oded Bar-Or, M.D.

August 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition, Athlete Health

SSE #79

Dietary Carbohydrate & Performance of Brief, Intense Exercise

How beneficial is dietary carbohydrate when your sport consists of short repeated bursts of high power? Studies examining resistance exercise, single and repeated sprints, and the role of carbohydrate as a fuel are contained in this latest publication. The supplement includes a formula to calculate your personal carbohydrate needs, instructions for analyzing your own diet, and a table illustrating the carbohydrate content of common foods.

Janet Walberg-Rankin, Ph.D.

August 2006

Topics: Carbohydrate, Training & Performance

SSE #82

Optimizing Bone Health: Impact of Nutrition, Exercise, and Hormones

Osteoporosis is a preventable condition, but the fact is that too few Americans (men and women) ingest enough calcium or exercise enough to\r\nprevent it. Everyone should try to maximize peak bone mass by age 30 and attempt to slow the rate of loss afterwards. The latest research on osteoporosis, exercise to maximize peak bone mass, and the role of calcium intake are issues addressed in this article by Dr. Susan Bloomfield

Susan A. Bloomfield, Ph.D.

August 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #86

Heat Stroke in Sports: Causes, Prevention and Treatment

Heat stroke is typically caused by a combination of environmental, physical, and behavioral factors. Dr. Eichner summarizes the causes that contribute to this illness, its treatment, and also the preventive measures to protect the athletes. Heat stroke is very serious. Preventing this illness involves acclimation, hydration, pacing, cooling and vigilance. It is important to recognize its early symptoms and to provide fast and effective treatment. Cooling the athlete is the first priority before transporting to the emergency room. This can save lives.

E. Randy Eichner, M.D.

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #88

Hyponatremia in Athletes

Hyponatremia is a rare disorder that results from a combination of abnormal water retention and/or sodium loss. Water retention can occur from excessive water retention by the kidneys or from drinking too much water. A combination of excessive drinking and salt loss reduces plasma sodium concentration. This can prompt a cascade of events that might result in a rapid and dangerous swelling of the brain that could cause seizures, coma, and even death.

The risk of hyponatremia can be reduced by making certain that fluid intake does not exceed sweat loss and by ingesting sodium containing beverages or foods to help replace the sodium lost in sweat.

Bob Murray, John Stofan, E. Randy Eichner

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #89

The Juvenile Obesity Epidemic: Strike Back with Physical Activity

The last three decades have seen a dramatic surge in prevalence of children and adolescent obesity in many developed and underdeveloped countries. Even though the causes of this epidemic are not clear, the reduction in time spent in physical activity and the increase in sedentary pursuits such as TV viewing and computer games are likely contributing factors.

\r\n\r\nProper management of juvenile obesity should include nutritional changes, behavior modification and a physically active lifestyle.

Oded Bar-Or, M.D.

September 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition, Athlete Health

SSE #90

Diabetes, Exercise and Competitive Sports

Regular exercise is highly recommended for many people who have either Type 1 DM or Type 2 DM diabetes. During exercise there is a rapid uptake of glucose from the blood and people with diabetes must adjust their pre-exercise insulin dosage and carbohydrate intake, before, during and after exercise. The benefits of regular exercise in people with diabetes are similar to those in persons without the disease as long as the diabetic is in good glucose control and has no major complications of the disease.

Peter A. Farrell, Ph.D.

September 2006

Topics:

SSE #91

Scientifically Debatable: Is Creatine Worth Its Weight

Creatine is a commonly used supplement that could potentially benefit short high-intensity exercise or improve response to resistance exercise training. However, the performance and metabolic response to creatine ingestion is varied. Those starting with low muscle creatine levels are more likely to but don't always have the best response. Since creatine supplementation boosts performance in some individuals and not others, this could be construed as unfair advantage. Many questions remain about the value of creatine supplementation for performance of various sports and about how much and when to use creatine - if it should be used at all. Evidence suggests that performance benefits resulting from creatine ingestion are predominantly observed during multiple tests lasting between 30 to 90 seconds. Also, when consumed in moderate doses, there seems to be no adverse effects of creatine supplementation in healthy adults.

Eric S. Rawson, Ph.D., Priscilla M. Clarkson, Ph.D.

September 2006

Topics: Supplements

SSE #92

Dietary Water and Sodium Requirements For Active Adults

Optimal hydration requires the replacement of water and electrolytes based on individual needs. Physically active people who lose more than 2 liters of sweat in a day should make sure they are ingesting adequate amounts of water and salt.

W. Larry Kenney, Ph.D., FACSM

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #95

Collapse in the Endurance Athlete

Collapse is perhaps the most dramatic of all medical problems affecting athletes. Though collapse can be seen in any athletic event requiring maximal exertion, it is most common in endurance events, such as marathons and triathlons. The incidence seems to increase as the race distance, temperature, and humidity increase (OÂ’Conner et al., 2003).

Robert Sallis, MD, FACSM

October 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #96

Herbs and Athletes

Although there is insufficient high-quality research to support the claims, there are many herbs marketed to help athletes achieve their goals. More research on herbs, health, and athletic performance is needed to better assess efficacy and safety. This article includes a table that highlights many of the herbs athletes may be interested in using with claimed benefits and examples of safety concerns. Sports professionals working with athletes can serve as sound resources for helping athletes find reputable information about herbs.

Susan Kundrat, MS, RD, LDN

October 2006

Topics: Supplements

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