January 2017


Lindsay B. Baker, PhD

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SSE #42

Worst Case Scenarios: Exertional Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure

On a warm September day in 1988, the members of the 12th class of 50 recruits began their first day of training at the Police Academy in Agawam, Massachusetts. Over the course of that day, the cadets performed numerous calisthenics, including sit-ups, push-ups, and jogging. Because of a problem with the water pipes in the old building housing the Academy, bottled water was brought in for the cadets to drink.

Priscilla M. Clarkson, Ph.D.

April 2006


SSE #43

Exercise Effects on Children's Health

Participating in sports and/or an exercise program can be important for a child's development and health status. While too much exercise may pose health risks, more children could benefit by increasing their physical activity level.

Melvin H. Williams, Ph.D.

April 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #44

The Older Athlete: Exercise in Hot Environments

Adequate fluid intake before, during and after exercise in hot conditions should be emphasized for older exercisers. Aerobic fitness, acclimation and hydration status are important factors to consider when exercising in the heat.

W. Larry Kenney, Ph.D.

April 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #49

Children's Responses to Exercise in Hot Climates: Implications for Performance and Health

Children's physiologic responses to exercise are generally similar to those of adults, but there are several ageand maturation-related differences in their responses. For example, children respond to the combined stresses of exercise and climatic heat differently than do adults (Table 1).\r\n\r\n\r\n

SSE #51

Children's Responses to Exercise in Cold Climates: Health Implications

Exercise and climatic heat both induce heat stress. Their synergistic effect, when excessive, may impair physical and cognitive performance, cause hyperthermia, and be detrimental to a child's well-being and health. In contrast, when the body is exposed to a cold environment, exercise-induced thermogenesis will help to prevent excessive body cooling. Therefore, hypothermia (core body temperature of 35o C or less) is more likely to occur during rest than during exercise.

Oded Bar-Or, M.D.

May 2006

Topics: Athlete Health, Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #54

Muscle Adaptations to Aerobic Training

Training adaptations are induced specifically in the muscles actively used in the exercise; both intensity and duration of exercise training are important factors influencing muscle adaptations. The adaptations are sustained by continued activity and are lost following inactivity.

Ronald L. Terjung, Ph.D.

May 2006

Topics: Training & Performance

SSE #56

Contagious Infections in Competitive Sports

Many athletes believe that physical training enhances immunity and helps prevent upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) like the common cold or \"flu\" (influenza). They also believe that physical activity and fitness help them overcome any minor infections they do get. On the other hand, based largely on anecdotes and on popularization of a link between physical or psychological stress and \"impaired immunity,\" the athletic community in general seems persuaded that intensive training, exhaustive exercise, or competition predisposes athletes to infections.

E. Randy Eichner, M.D.

June 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #58

The Role of Red Meat in an Athlete's Diet

Iron & zinc are the two nutrients most often deficient in vegetarian or modified-vegetarian diets. Athletes who choose to exclude meat from their diets must carefully plan diets to enhance nutrient availability, particularly for iron and zinc.

Susan M. Kleiner, Ph.D., R.D.

June 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition

SSE #59

Fat Metabolism During Exercise: New Concepts

During intense exercise carbohydrate (not fat) can be mobilized and oxidized rapidly enough to meet the energy requirements for intense muscular contractions.

Edward F. Coyle, Ph.D.

June 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition

SSE #60

Caffeine and Exercise Performance

Moderate doses of caffeine ingested 1 h prior to exercise appears to enhance performance during short term high intense cycling lasting ~ 5 min. in the laboratory and in simulated 1500-m race time.

Terry E. Graham, Ph.D. and Lawrence L. Spriet, Ph.D.

June 2006

Topics: Supplements, Training & Performance

SSE #61

Carbohydrates, Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Endurance: The Central Fatigue Hypothesis

The central fatigue hypothesis suggests that increased brain serotonin (5-HT) can cause a deterioration in sport and exercise performance. Whether branched-chain amino acid supplementation can effect performance remains uncertain.

J. Mark Davis, Ph.D.

June 2006

Topics: Carbohydrate, Supplements

SSE #66

Spinal Cord Injury and Exercise in the Heat

Opportunities to compete in the Para-Olympics, advances in medical treatment and therapies for functional recovery of the disabled, and the recognition that physical activity is beneficial for the health of everyone, abled or disabled, have contributed to increased participation of disabled individuals in regular physical exercise. Like able-bodied athletes, disabled athletes face limitations to performance-fatigue, nutrition and fluid needs, and the possibility of heat exhaustion. In this report, we will discuss thermoregulation and cardiovascular function in the disabled athlete. We will make several recommendations to reduce the chance of heat illness and to delay fatigue in the disabled athlete.\r\n

Maria T.E. Hopman, Ph.D., Rob A. Binkhorst, Ph.D.

July 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #67

Anti-Inflamatory Drugs, Kidney Function, and Exercise

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used by competitive athletes and recreational exercisers because of their analgesic (pain reduction) and anti-inflammatory benefits. A list of common NSAIDs and other analgesics available over-the-counter (OTC) is presented in Table 1 (Physicians' Desk Reference, 1997).

Bill Farquhar, M.S. and W. Larry Kenney, Ph.D.

July 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #69

Immunity in Athletes: Current Issues

Publications on the topic of exercise immunology date from late in the 19th century, but it was not until the mid-1980s that a significant number of investigators worldwide devoted their resources to this area of research endeavor. From 1900 to 1997, just under 900 papers on exercise immunology were published, with 75% of these appearing in the 1990s. \r\n\r\n

David C. Nieman, DrPH, FACSM

July 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #70

Nutrition Needs for Team Sport

There is a common belief that there are sport-specific diets. The truth is that there are only people-specific diets. The first nutritional requirement for athletes and their sports fans is a well-balanced diet that contains a wide range of foods and covers daily energy expenditure. As for the composition of this diet, health professionals recommend that it should be high in carbohydrate and low in fat (FAO/WHO, 1998). Ensuring that athletes follow these guidelines is the first step in the successful nutritional support for sports participation.

Clyde Williams, Ph.D. and Ceri W. Nicholas, Ph.D.

July 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition

SSE #72

Exercise, Macronutrient Balance, and Body Weight Regulation

The accumulation of excess body fat appears to be fundamentally a problem resulting from inadequate fat oxidation relative to intake. An increase in body fat mass incrreases the concentration of free fatty acids in the blood, and this increased availability of lipid fuel is associated with increased fat oxidation. The increase in fat utilization that accompanies obesity helps re-establish a new equilibrium between fat intake and fat oxidation that serves to stabilize body weight, albeit at the cost of obesity. Because exercise can increase total daily energy expenditure and fat oxidation, chronic exercise can help prevent expansion of the adipose tissue mass, allowing the physically active individual to achieve fat balance at a lower body fat mass.

Christopher L. Melby, Dr.P.H., James O. Hill, Ph.D.

July 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition, Body Composition

SSE #74

Screening For Risk Of Cardiac Death In Young Athletes

The sudden cardiac-related death of an athlete during a sports event is a particularly poignant tragedy. Participation in sports--a wholesome pursuit that provides important physical and psychosocial benefits--is not expected to place young, apparently healthy competitors at risk for cardiovascular collapse. When sudden deaths occur in elite-level athletes who have national media exposure, the concerns become magnified. How safe is sports play? What causes these tragic events? How can they be prevented?

Thomas W. Rowland, M.D.

July 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #76

Forfeit The Fat, Leave The Lean: Optimizing Weight Loss For Athletes

For athletes and active individuals striving to reduce body fat in order to gain a performance benefit, dietary guidelines and strategies for weightmanagement are provided in this article. Current research on fat intake,protein metabolism, and carbohydrate needs is reviewed. By applying the suggestions provided, the athlete will have the tools to insure a safe and successful weight loss program.

Janet Walberg-Rankin, Ph.D., Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia

August 2006

Topics: Body Composition

SSE #77

Nutrition For Child And Adolescent Athletes

Dr. Oded Bar-Or discusses the physiological differences between children, adolescents and adults in this latest article. Protein requirements, fluid and electrolyte requirements and recommendations for optimal nutrition are provided in the article and supplement.

Oded Bar-Or, M.D.

August 2006

Topics: Sports Nutrition, Athlete Health

SSE #79

Dietary Carbohydrate & Performance of Brief, Intense Exercise

How beneficial is dietary carbohydrate when your sport consists of short repeated bursts of high power? Studies examining resistance exercise, single and repeated sprints, and the role of carbohydrate as a fuel are contained in this latest publication. The supplement includes a formula to calculate your personal carbohydrate needs, instructions for analyzing your own diet, and a table illustrating the carbohydrate content of common foods.

Janet Walberg-Rankin, Ph.D.

August 2006

Topics: Carbohydrate, Training & Performance


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