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SSE #208: An update on beta-alanine supplementation for athletes

Fatigue during high intensity sports or activities (~1-10 minutes in length) is caused by several components with strong evidence that muscle acidosis via accumulating hydrogen ions is a key performance inhibitor.  To address this issue, skeletal muscle has intra and extracellular buffering mechanisms to attenuate exercise induced acidosis.  Carnosine is an intracellular buffer that is key in slowing the decline of muscle pH.  Carnosine has a nitrogen containing imidazole side ring which accepts or buffers hydrogen.  This buffering can contribute as much as 15% of total buffering capacity.  Additionally, carnosine has been shown to be a calcium/hydrogen exchanger, delivering calcium back to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and hydrogen away to the cell membrane.  This suggests that carnosine may increase calcium sensitivity and muscle contraction efficiency.  Plasma beta-alanine is the rate limiting substrate of carnosine.  Approximately 3-6 g/d of beta-alanine supplementation over at least four weeks can elevate muscle carnosine stores by 30-60%.  Several meta-analyses have been conducted and has shown 2-3% increased performance in non-elite athletes, followed with just 0.5-1% increased performance in elite athletes. 

Reference Article

SSE #208: An update on beta-alanine supplementation for athletes

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the information provided in this SSE to determine whether beta-alanine supplementation is right for your athlete and their training needs. 
  • Describe the mechanisms that carnosine buffers hydrogen and exchanges calcium/hydrogen. 
  • Discuss future applied research for beta-alanine and how else beta-alanine can be applied to non-elite and elite athletes.  

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

06/24/2024

BOC

1

06/23/2024

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

06/23/2024

CSCCa

1

06/23/2024

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/stellingwerff_sse_208_a03.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE #203: Caffeine and Exercise Performance: an update

Caffeine is one of the most studied supplements and has shown ergogenic effects in almost every sport scenario it has been studied.  The benefits of ingesting moderate to high doses of caffeine (5-9 mg/kg of body mass) before and during exercise have been well established in endurance exercise.  Although the moderate to high doses of caffeine improves endurance performance, side effects such as gastrointestinal upset, nervousness, mental confusion, inability to focus and disturbed sleep have been reported.  Lower doses of caffeine (<3 mg/kg of body mass) have been shown to have similar performance benefits as the moderate to high doses, and without the side effects.  In addition to endurance performance, caffeine also improves performance in stop-and-go and team sports that require short-term, high intensity movements.  Caffeine seems to have an antagonistic interaction with adenosine receptors in the central and peripheral nervous system, which increases central drive and reduces the perception of fatigue and pain during exercise.  There is some variation between individuals in response to the effects of caffeine and it is unclear whether genetic polymorphisms can explain the inter-individual seen during caffeine administration. 

Reference Article

SSE #203: Caffeine and Exercise Performance: an update

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the available information on caffeine supplementation and exercise when considering adding caffeine into your athlete’s nutrition plan. 
  • Describe the mechanisms that caffeine effects the central and/or peripheral nervous system and how it improves exercise.
  • Discuss the possible genetic differences of individuals who do not respond or have very little responses to caffeine.   

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

10/08/2023

BOC

1

10/08/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

10/08/2023

CSCCa

1

10/08/2023

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/docs/default-source/sse-docs/spriet_sse_203_a03_final.pdf?sfvrsn=2

SSE #195: Fruit derived polyphenol supplementation for performance and recovery

The mechanism of how polyphenol supplementation affects performance is complex and not fully understood.  Polyphenols are derived from fruits and vegetables and are associated with color and taste.  Approximately 90% of polyphenols are not absorbed in the small intestine, thus they are subsequently made available by colon gut bacteria in the source of phenolic acids.  The phenolic acids are then able to be absorbed.  Beneficial effects of polyphenol supplementation may include improved endurance, repeated sprint performance, and faster recovery of muscle strength however, only a small number of studies have been conducted to date and more research is needed to understand the ergogenic potential of polyphenol supplementation. 

Reference Article

SSE #195: Fruit derived polyphenol supplementation for performance and recovery

Course Objectives

  • Utilize the evidence behind the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasoactive properties of polyphenol supplementation to improve exercise performance and muscle recovery in athletes.
  • Discuss the amounts and timing of polyphenol supplementation needed to improve exercise performance and muscle recovery in different trained populations.
  • Describe the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms and pathways of polyphenol supplementation.

Course

Credits

Course Expiration

ACSM

1

05/26/2023

BOC

1

05/26/2023

Commission on Dietetic Registration

1

05/26/2023

CSCCa

1

05/26/2023

Reference Article

https://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/Article/fruit-derived-polyphenol-supplementation-for-performance-and-recovery