Accuracy of a smart bottle in measuring fluid intake by American football players during pre-season training


July 2023



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Rehydration is important for athlete performance and recovery. However, it can be challenging to follow appropriate fluid replacement practices due in part to difficulties in tracking fluid intake in real time. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of a smart bottle in measuring fluid intake during exercise. Thirty male American football athletes drank from bottles equipped with a smart cap during outdoor pre-season practices (110 ± 30 min; 29.3 ± 3.0 °C; 75 ± 11% rh). The cap technology included optical sensors, microprocessors, batteries, and wireless connectivity that transmitted fluid volume data to a smartphone application in real-time. Reference measurements of fluid intake from the smart bottle were determined by gravimetry followed by conversion to volume using the density of the fluid consumed. There was no significant mean difference in fluid intake between the smart bottle and reference method (1220 ± 371 ml vs. 1236 ± 389 ml, p = 0.39 paired t test). Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between methods was - 212 to 180 ml. The smart bottle provided accurate measurements of fluid intake during exercise in real-world field conditions on a group level and within limits of agreement of - 212 to 180 ml (or approximately ± 15% of overall fluid intake) on an individual level.

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Sci Rep. (2023) 13(1):11383

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