An athlete’s body weight has very little to do with carbohydrate requirements.
Jeukendrup explains that the amount of carbohydrates needed during exercise depends on the intensity, type and duration of activity.
Carbohydrate sources can be divided into two categories. Some carbohydrates, like glucose and sucrose, are used rapidly, while others, like fructose, are used more slowly.
van Loon explains that rapidly digested and absorbed protein sources rich in the amino acid leucine, such as whey protein, are most anabolic following exercise.
van Loon explains the amount of carbohydrate needed after a workout and what sources athletes should look to consume.
Sleep-deprived people may consume more food.
Approximately 30-50% of athletes experience GI problems during exercise.
Experts recommend avoiding NSAID use before a marathon due to increased risk of GI problems.
Keys to avoiding GI distress include hydration and avoiding fiber, protein, fat and lactose rich foods.
Foods rich in fiber, protein, fat and lactose slow gastric emptying and should be avoided before and during exericse.
Movement of organs and decreased blood flow may contribute to GI issues during exercise.
Factors that may increase an athlete's chance of experiencing GI distress.
During exercise of less than one hour, GI distress may be prevented by gargling rather than consuming carbohydrate.
Heat cramps are a result of excessive sweat lost and a consequent sodium deficit.
Prior to exercise in the heat, athletes may gain a thermoregulatory and performance advantage by 'pre-cooling' their bodies rather than using a traditional 'warm-up.'
Athletes can acclimatize to a hot, humid environment. However, at high intensities the athlete will still have a difficult time evaporating sweat and will feel the effect of the environment.
Sweat tests can help identify individual fluid and electrolyte needs and improve hydration strategies.
To maximize performance, athletes should to acclimatize to the heat, practice proper hydration, and cool the body during breaks.
Heat stress is the effect of the environment on the athlete, whereas heat strain describes how the athlete's body responds to the environmental stress.
Primary causes of fatigue during exercise in the heat include cardiovascular strain and high rates of glycogen utilization.