In the future, genomics may be able to help athletes personalize their training approach and predict injury-related responses.
The most common nutrition mistake made by marathon runners is not practicing their race day nutrition plan during training.
If their goal is to increase muscle mass, athletes may want to train later in the day. This timing may associate their training with their largest intake of amino acids. Relaxing at night will also help to decrease metabolic stress, which impairs adaptations to training.
The night before a marathon is the last chance to fill muscle glycogen stores, so runners should choose foods high in carbohydrate. Good options are rice, potatoes or pasta.
The choice of what to eat for breakfast before a marathon is highly individual. The most important consideration is to get enough carbohydrate, at least 100 g, to have enough fuel for the race.
Endurance training will increase aerobic capacity, while strength training will increase muscle mass and alter the functionality of connective tissue.
Athletes looking to lose weight should balance energy intake and output, and eating before sleep is a personal preference. However, there could be an advantage to eating protein before sleep to promote protein synthesis.
The biggest misconception about protein consumption is the notion that "more is better." The right timing helps the body use more of the ingested protein for muscle adaptations.
Advice on the use of antioxidants depends on the type of training. Athletes should consume antioxidants during resistance training, but not endurance training.
Individuals should consume fat in their diet since this nutrient is an important fuel source, aids vitamin absorption, acts as shock absorber for organs and is a component of membranes.
During exercise fat stored in the muscle and adipose tissue supplies energy, so the type of dietary fat doesn't matter for performance. However, good health saturated fats should be limited and omega-3 fatty acids encouraged.
Carbohydrates are the main fuel source for an athlete during training, so this macronutrient should not be avoided when trying to lose weight.
Sugar and salt, along with water and flavor, are the key components of a sports drink. Carbohydrates, including sugars, provide fuel and salt helps replace sweat losses.
The game of football involves repeated, short, high-intensity bursts of muscle contraction. The preferred energy source for burst or sprint activities is carbohydrate.
Stop-and-go sports involve frequent transitions from one intensity to another. Therefore, the muscle relies heavily on carbohydrate as the main fuel source.
Fluid needs during a race are highly individual and athletes should determine and practice their hydration strategy during training.
The type of beverage to consume during a race is a personal decision. However, for races of longer durations, athletes should include electrolytes. Athletes should also plan ahead and train with the beverages availabe on the course.
To gain muscle mass, athletes should eat ~30% of their total calories from protein. It is also important the athlete is in positive energy balance and consumes additional calories from fat and carbohydrate.
Endurance-trained athletes, similar to resistance-trained athletes, should eat ~20-25 g high quality protein for recovery.
Due to the type of training stress and high energy expenditure, endurance athletes do not need to reduce protein intake to avoid gains in muscle mass. Dietary protein may help promote adaptations to endurance training.