Both skin and core temperature are related to fatigue in the heat; skin temperature is close to environmental temperature and is related to the perception of heat felt by the athlete.
A lack of water in the body inhibits sweating which causes body temperature to rise, ultimately reducing the athlete's ability to continue exercising.
Fluid intake before and during exercise can help the body maintain an appropriate body temperature.
Genetics explain about 50 percent of performance outcomes, nutrition and other aspects of gene regulation also play important roles.
Predicting an individual's response to nutrition is challenging, since scientists need to account for both the genetic variation of the athlete and the gut biome.
Exercise in the heat results in greater sweat losses as compared to a thermoneutral environment, resulting in a greater need to replace both fluid and electrolytes.
Two warning signs of over-hydration during exercise are 1) drinking large volumes of water without producing urine and 2) gaining weight over the course of a training session or competition.
If a critical core temperature does contribute to fatigue, it is likely related to the environment.
Studies have shown that moderate intake of caffeine will not impair fluid balance or thermoregulation.
The dietary nitrates in beet root juice alter running economy and cycling efficiency to help improve performance.
Jones has found that beet root juice is effective for increasing older individuals’ exercise tolerance and lowering blood pressure.
Jones explains why nitric oxide is important to various physiological processes, including the delivery of oxygen to muscles and the production of oxidative energy.
Jones explains that beet root juice contains an abundance of inorganic nitrate, which converts to nitric oxide in the body. Nitric oxide helps deliver blood and oxygen to muscle tissue.
Jones explains how he discovered beet root juice as a nitrate source.
Jeukendrup explains that mouth rinsing can help improve performance. Sensors in the mouth signal the brain which sends a message to the muscles.
While the form of carbohydrate delivery doesn’t impact performance, it is important that carbohydrate supplements are low in fat, protein and fiber.
The thought that the body switches from carbohydrates to fat for energy is a myth. While the levels do change, athletes burn both at the same time.
Experts have determined that extreme carbohydrate loading is unneccessary. Athletes can gradually increase their carbohydrate intake while reducing training load leading up to the race.
Stachenfeld explains the circumstances when over-hydration may become an issue.
Hyponatremia is not very common. Stachenfeld discusses strategies for susceptible athletes to prevent hyponatremia.