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Importance of Skin Temperature and Core Temperature

Importance of Skin Temperature and Core Temperature

Both skin and core temperature are related to fatigue in the heat; skin temperature is close to environmental temperature and is related to the perception of heat felt by the athlete.

The Effect of Dehydration on Performance

The Effect of Dehydration on Performance

A lack of water in the body inhibits sweating which causes body temperature to rise, ultimately reducing the athlete's ability to continue exercising.

Effect of Fluid Intake on Thermoregulation During Exercise

Effect of Fluid Intake on Thermoregulation During Exercise

Fluid intake before and during exercise can help the body maintain an appropriate body temperature.

The Contribution of Genetics to Athletic Performance

The Contribution of Genetics to Athletic Performance

Genetics explain about 50 percent of performance outcomes, nutrition and other aspects of gene regulation also play important roles.

Using Genetics to Predict Individual Responses to Nutrition

Using Genetics to Predict Individual Responses to Nutrition

Predicting an individual's response to nutrition is challenging, since scientists need to account for both the genetic variation of the athlete and the gut biome.

Sports Drink Recommendations for Exercise in the Heat and Cooler Conditions

Sports Drink Recommendations for Exercise in the Heat and Cooler Conditions

Exercise in the heat results in greater sweat losses as compared to a thermoneutral environment, resulting in a greater need to replace both fluid and electrolytes.

Recognizing Over-Hydration in Athletes

Recognizing Over-Hydration in Athletes

Two warning signs of over-hydration during exercise are 1) drinking large volumes of water without producing urine and 2) gaining weight over the course of a training session or competition.

The Concept of a Critical Core Temperature

The Concept of a Critical Core Temperature

If a critical core temperature does contribute to fatigue, it is likely related to the environment.

Effect of Caffeine on Thermoregulation

Effect of Caffeine on Thermoregulation

Studies have shown that moderate intake of caffeine will not impair fluid balance or thermoregulation.

Nitrates alter the energy cost of exercise

Nitrates alter the energy cost of exercise

The dietary nitrates in beet root juice alter running economy and cycling efficiency to help improve performance.

Beet root juice may improve the exercise tolerance of older individuals

Beet root juice may improve the exercise tolerance of older individuals

Jones has found that beet root juice is effective for increasing older individuals’ exercise tolerance and lowering blood pressure.

Nitrates have important effects on physiological processes

Nitrates have important effects on physiological processes

Jones explains why nitric oxide is important to various physiological processes, including the delivery of oxygen to muscles and the production of oxidative energy.

Beet Root Juice Faciliates the Conversion from Nitrate to Nitric Oxide

Beet Root Juice Faciliates the Conversion from Nitrate to Nitric Oxide

Jones explains that beet root juice contains an abundance of inorganic nitrate, which converts to nitric oxide in the body. Nitric oxide helps deliver blood and oxygen to muscle tissue.

Nitrate-rich beet root juice reduces the oxygen cost of exercise

Nitrate-rich beet root juice reduces the oxygen cost of exercise

Jones explains how he discovered beet root juice as a nitrate source.

Rinsing the mouth with carbohydrate can help improve performance

Rinsing the mouth with carbohydrate can help improve performance

Jeukendrup explains that mouth rinsing can help improve performance. Sensors in the mouth signal the brain which sends a message to the muscles.

Carbohydrate supplements can come in many forms, such as a drink, gel, chews or a bar

Carbohydrate supplements can come in many forms, such as a drink, gel, chews or a bar

While the form of carbohydrate delivery doesn’t impact performance, it is important that carbohydrate supplements are low in fat, protein and fiber.

Carbohydrate and fat use during the later stages of exercise

Carbohydrate and fat use during the later stages of exercise

The thought that the body switches from carbohydrates to fat for energy is a myth. While the levels do change, athletes burn both at the same time.

Advice Given to Athletes on Carbohydrate Loading Has Changed since the 1960’s

Advice Given to Athletes on Carbohydrate Loading Has Changed since the 1960’s

Experts have determined that extreme carbohydrate loading is unneccessary. Athletes can gradually increase their carbohydrate intake while reducing training load leading up to the race.

RECOGNIZING OVER-HYDRATION IN ATHLETES

RECOGNIZING OVER-HYDRATION IN ATHLETES

Stachenfeld explains the circumstances when over-hydration may become an issue.

PREVENTING HYPONATREMIA

PREVENTING HYPONATREMIA

Hyponatremia is not very common. Stachenfeld discusses strategies for susceptible athletes to prevent hyponatremia.

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