COURSE CATALOG

Approved Provider For

The Hydration Debate: Making Sense of Mixed Messages

Hydration strategies used during exercise, training and competition seek to prevent over-/under-hydration and preserve performance, but it isn’t as simple as drinking throughout exercise. Research physiologist Robert W. Kenefick, PhD, FACSM, describes the current research on hydration strategies and provides practical applications for each method.

Managing Post-Exercise Inflammation: From Ibuprofen to Cherries

Most people know NSAIDs, like aspirin, can help control inflammation in the body – but what if the same results could be achieved through nutrition? Sports dietitian, Roberta Anding, MS, RD/LD, CDE, CSSD, FAND, sheds some light on the benefits of an anti-inflammatory diet to reduce the inflammation associated with exercise.

Sleep in Elite Athletes and Rest in the NBA

Cheri Mah, a sleep research scientist, discusses current research related to sleep and performance in elite athletes. The webinar includes sleep challenges athletes face, the impact sleep can have on performance as well as practical strategies to improve sleep. A particular focus is given to the NBA and the role that sleep and game schedules can play on performance. 

Nutrition for Marathon Running

Professor Asker Jeukendrup discusses race-day Nutrition for Marathon Runners. The webinar includes a historical perspective on nutrition practices of marathoners as well as the current research around nutrition and performance. A particular focus is on practical nutrition strategies for before, during and after a marathon.

American Football Taskforce webinar

A recorded version of the nutrition in sport: American Football webinar is now available. Hear from the authors of the American Football series of SSEs as they highlight a variety of topics related to sports science and American Football. Watch the full 2 hour webinar to receive 2 units of continuing education for ACSM, CDR or the BOC.

SSE #177: Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals

Energy balance is a dynamic process that assumes that numerous biological and behavioral factors regulate and influence both sides of the energy balance equation. Thus, changing one side of the energy balance equation (energy intake) can and does influence the other side of the equation (energy expenditure). The energy cost of weight loss changes over time even when the level of energy restriction is held constant. Thus, individuals will lose weight differently on the same weight loss diet, even if no exercise is part of the weight loss plan. Active individuals, especially lean athletes, who desire weight loss should not restrict energy intake too dramatically to avoid loss of lean tissue. To preserve lean tissue during periods of energy restriction, adequate protein intake needs to be assessed and prescribed.

Reference Article

SSE #177: Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals

SSE #176: HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE YOUTH SPORTS - THE FUTURE OF YOUTH ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT

There are many benefits yet also several challenges associated with participation in youth sports. A variable, diversified and balanced development program with an athlete-centered emphasis on health, safety and fun is the best pathway to sustainable athletic and sport success and optimal performance.

Reference Article

SSE #176: HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE YOUTH SPORTS - THE FUTURE OF YOUTH ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT

SSE #175: The Female Athlete: Energy and Nutrition Issues

Energy intake is important for numerous reasons when it comes to the female athlete. Low energy intakes increase the risk of many health issues and impaired performance. For active females, adequate energy intake is essential for high-level performance and maintaining or building muscle, bone, and general health. There are specific micronutrients discussed in this sports science exchange article that are most likely to be low in the diets of active women if energy is restricted, poor food choices are made, or gastrointestinal issues are present.

Reference Article

SSE #175: The Female Athlete: Energy and Nutrition Issues

SSE #173: Nutritional Strategies to Improve Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Content and Function

Training-induced increases in mitochondrial content improve exercise tolerance by attenuating rises in cytosolic free adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentrations. Nutritional approaches to improve training-induced mitochondrial biogenesis are limited, partially because of a lack of understanding of the initiating molecular signals regulating this process. The recent revelation that mitochondrial derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce mitochondrial biogenesis may result in novel training approaches. The consumption of various nutrients may also play a role in mitochondrial content.

Reference Article

SSE #173: Nutritional Strategies to Improve Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Content and Function

SSE #172: Factors That Influence the Amount of Protein Necessary to Maximize the Anabolic Response of Muscle Following Resistance Exercise

The metabolic basis for changes in muscle mass is net muscle protein balance, i.e., the balance between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Many factors influence the response of MPS to protein ingestion following resistance exercise. However, the amount of protein consumed in a single serving following exercise is the most important factor that determines the magnitude of the MPS response. The optimal amount of protein to consume following exercise varies depending on a number of factors, including the characteristics of the exercise bout, the age of the individual, type of protein ingested, and possibly the amount of muscle mass an individual possesses.

Reference Article

SSE #172: Factors That Influence the Amount of Protein Necessary to Maximize the Anabolic Response of Muscle Following Resistance Exercise

SSE #170: Branched-chain amino acid supplementation to support muscle anabolism following exercise

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids that play several important roles in muscle metabolism. The BCAAs are critical for stimulation of molecular signaling that leads to muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown. This sports science exchange will discuss the research associated with BCAAs, other nutritional sources, and their effects on muscle protein following exercise.

Reference Article

SSE #170: Branched-chain amino acid supplementation to support muscle anabolism following exercise

SSE #169: Nutritional Support for Injuries Requiring Reduced Activity

The inflammatory response to an injury is an integral and important part of the healing process. Immobilization of a limb due to injury results in a sudden and dramatic loss of muscle mass, strength and function. Energy intake during a period of limb immobilization is often decreased from previously, but the decrease is unlikely to be as dramatic as may be initially considered. Careful determinations of energy expenditure and intake during recovery from injury are important aspects of nutritional management. A sudden and dramatic decrease in specific nutrient intake following a relatively severe injury will lead to impaired wound healing and/or increased muscle loss during periods of reduced activity. There is a theoretical rationale and/or preliminary evidence for the efficacy of several nutrients and nutraceuticals to counter muscle loss during limb immobilization and/or reduced physical activity following injury. However, not only must any available data be considered preliminary, an understanding of the optimal dose, timing and potentially harmful consequences are in need as well.

Reference Article

SSE #169: Nutritional Support for Injuries Requiring Reduced Activity

SSE #161: Sweat Testing Methodology in the Field: Challenges and Best Practices

The amount of water and electrolytes (primarily sodium, Na+) lost as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise can vary considerably within and among athletes. Some factors that cause the sweat rate variability: exercise intensity, environmental conditions, heat acclimation status, aerobic capacity, genetic predisposition, body size/composition, protective equipment, sex, diet and hydration status. Sweat testing can help to estimate individual sweating rates and sweat Na+ losses to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations. However, it is important to note that if sweat testing is not done correctly and in a consistent manner, sweat testing results may vary and will be inaccurate. Based on study findings to date, as well as some practical considerations, current best practices in sweat testing in the field (including collection, storage, analysis and interpretation) are proposed.

Reference Article

SSE #161: Sweat Testing Methodology in the Field: Challenges and Best Practices

SSE #160: Dietary protein to support active aging

Aging is accompanied by a decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. The loss of muscle mass with aging is at least partly attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to food intake. Physical activity increases the sensitivity of skeletal muscle tissue to the anabolic properties of protein consumption. Exercise and adequate protein consumption together attenuates age-related muscle loss and can be combined effectively to increase muscle mass, strength and functional performance in older populations.  Thus, research is ongoing to define the optimal type, amount, and appropriate timing of protein intake to further enhance the adaptive response to exercise training.

Reference Article

SSE #160: Dietary protein to support active aging

SSE #159: PROTEIN AND EXERCISE IN WEIGHT LOSS: CONSIDERATIONS FOR ATHLETES

Weight loss is common in athletes and is typically practiced with the goal of increasing the efficiency of movement and thus enhancing performance. Weight loss can be accomplished “passively”, making use of nutrition strategies only; i.e. by restricting energy intake. Several ‘diet-only’ plans have been examined in head-to-head studies, confirming there are a variety of dietary patterns which promote weight loss; all of which must create an energy deficit. However, weight loss via diet alone results in the loss of both body fat and lean tissue, which would likely include skeletal muscle and potentially the loss of bone mass. In addition to diet-only strategies, weight loss can be accomplished through increasing the volume/intensity of exercise without changes in dietary intake, or as is more common, in combination with a reduction in energy intake. Optimizing both the quantity and timing of protein intake can help mitigate losses in muscle mass. In addition to protein intake and exercise, the speed of weight loss, and hence the magnitude of the caloric deficit, can affect the ability to retain lean mass. In fact, with substantially large caloric deficits, increases in dietary protein may show diminishing effects in mitigating losses of lean tissue mass.

Reference Article

SSE #159: PROTEIN AND EXERCISE IN WEIGHT LOSS: CONSIDERATIONS FOR ATHLETES

SSE #158: Hydration and Thermal Strain in Youth Sports: Responses and Recommendations to Minimize Clinical Risk and Optimize Performance in the Heat

Ensuring adolescent athletes are healthy, sufficiently fit, rested, well hydrated, nourished, and progressively acclimatized to the heat is critical to minimizing the risk of exertional heat illness. In relation to individual health status and fitness, athletic activities should be appropriately modified as heat and humidity rise. With sufficient preparation, appropriate modification, and close monitoring, exertional heat illness is usually preventable.

Reference Article

SSE #158: Hydration and Thermal Strain in Youth Sports: Responses and Recommendations to Minimize Clinical Risk and Optimize Performance in the Heat

SSE #156: Dietary Nitric Oxide Precursors and Exercise Performance

Nitric Oxide (NO) is involved in several bodily processes, and exercise performance may be enhanced by augmenting NO production. NO can be synthesized by oxidation of the amino acid, L-arginine, or by reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Dietary supplements containing these NO precursors have been promoted as possible ergogenic aids. L-citrulline supplementation may enable a higher level of extracellular L-arginine and enhanced NO availability, but further studies are required to investigate its ergogenic potential. Dietary nitrate supplementation, typically via beetroot juice ingestion, has been shown to reduce oxygen cost of low-intensity exercise and to increase the time to exhaustion during high-intensity continuous and intermittent exercise. The efficacy of dietary supplementation with NO precursors is likely related to a range of factors.

Reference Article

SSE #156: Dietary Nitric Oxide Precursors and Exercise Performance

SSE #154: High-Intensity Interval Training and the Impact of Diet

Dietary interventions can alter the acute and chronic responses to interval-type exercise. The effect of specific dietary manipulations on interval training is difficult to draw conclusions from, as there have been limited studies in this area. Based on the research available, we may draw conclusions regarding carbohydrate availability, sodium bicarbonate, as well as beta-alanine, and their suggested role in performance adaptations.

Reference Article

SSE #154: High-Intensity Interval Training and the Impact of Diet

SSE #153: Heat Acclimatization to Improve Athletic Performance in Warm-Hot Environments

Heat acclimatization (acclimation) occurs when repeated exercise-induced heat exposures are sufficiently stressful to invoke profuse sweating and elevate whole-body temperature. Biological adaptations to heat acclimation include reduced physiological strain, improved comfort, improved exercise capacity and a reduction in risk of serious heat illness during exposure to heat stress. Practical strategies to induce heat acclimation are discussed.

Reference Article

SSE #153: Heat Acclimatization to Improve Athletic Performance in Warm-Hot Environments

SSE #152: Hydration & Aerobic Performance: Impact of Environment

When sweat rates are high, ad libitum fluid intake is often not adequate to full replace sweat losses. This can result in cumulative body water deficits (Hypohydration) that can negatively impact aerobic performance, particularly in warm-hot environments. Hypohydration occurs at a body water deficit of >2% body mass loss. Mechanisms behind impaired aerobic performance are discussed.

Reference Article

SSE #152: Hydration & Aerobic Performance: Impact of Environment

SSE #150: Dietary Assessment Methods for the Athlete: Pros and Cons of Different Methods

The ability to collect dietary information can be a challenge for healthcare professionals working with athletes. This may be due to time constraints, education, or compliance on the part of the athlete. Understanding the habits and dietary intake of the athlete is important to supporting overall athletic health and performance. This course will help the healthcare professional determine which method of dietary assessment, if any, is appropriate to use with a given athletic population.

Reference Article

SSE #150: Dietary Assessment Methods for the Athlete: Pros and Cons of Different Methods

SSE #148: The Importance of Vitamin D for Athletes

Vitamin D plays an important role in an athlete's health, training and performance. Including vitamin D status, measured as blood 25(OH)D concentration, as part of a routine nutritional assessment is recommended. This course discusses the implications of vitamin D deficiency on health as well as athletic performance, discusses food sources of vitamin D as well as supplementation, and the factors that increase the risk of an athlete presenting with Vitamin D deficiency.

Reference Article

SSE #148: The Importance of Vitamin D for Athletes

SSE #147: Vitamin D Measurement & Supplementation: What, When, Why & How?

Vitamin D is associated with numerous important biological actions relevant to the athlete including regulating bone health, immune function, cell cycle and skeletal muscle homeostasis. Athletic populations show markedly poor vitamin D concentrations, particularly during the winter months. This course discusses the importance of vitamin D related to health and athletic performance, as well as discusses potentially supplementation strategies to improve circulating 25(OH)D levels.

Reference Article

SSE #147: Vitamin D Measurement & Supplementation: What, When, Why & How?

SSE #140: Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sports Performance

To succeed in team sports, players must have endurance, strength, speed and power, as well as a range of sport-specific skills that can be executed accurately and rapidly during competition. Team-sport players spend about half of their time performing low- to moderate-speed running from which they are able to perform multiple sprints to support scoring opportunities or to prevent the opposition from scoring. Unlike traditional endurance sports in which athletes run, cycle or swim in one direction, team-sport players have to constantly change direction as well as make rapid changes in pace. The distances covered and the number and frequency of directional changes are largely unpredictable and vary with each team sport and even between playing positions in each sport. To cope with the demands of training and competition, the nutrition of players has to be designed to cover their energy expenditures as well as sustain good health. Central in nutritional planning for team-sports players is the quantity and type of carbohydrate in their diets because of the essential contribution made by this macronutrient to energy metabolism during high-intensity exercise.

Reference Article

SSE #140: Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sports Performance

SSE #139: Physiological Adaptations to Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is generally characterized by repeated sessions of brief, intermittent exercise, typically at intensities that elicit ≥85% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. While long appreciated by endurance athletes as an integral component of training programs designed to maximize performance, short-term studies lasting up to several weeks in healthy persons of average fitness have established that HIIT per se is a potent stimulus to induce physiological adaptations that resemble changes typically associated with traditional endurance training, despite a lower total exercise volume and reduced training time commitment. The majority of low-volume HIIT studies conducted to date have utilized relatively short intervention periods (i.e., lasting up to several weeks) and future work involving long-term (i.e., months to years) interventions is needed to advance our mechanistic understanding of how manipulating the exercise stimulus translates into physiological remodeling, as well as identifying from a practical perspective the minimum “dose” of HIIT to maximize adaptation, given that lack of time remains the most commonly cited barrier to lack of regular exercise participation.

Reference Article

SSE #139: Physiological Adaptations to Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training

SSEs #137 &138: Endurance Exercise and Antioxidant Supplementation: Sense or Nonsense? - Parts 1 & 2

Free radicals are a natural production of muscle contraction in active skeletal muscles, with the magnitude of production increasing with exercise intensity and duration. Antioxidants, endogenous and exogenous, form a cooperative network of protection against radical-mediated cellular damage as a result of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Part 1 and Part 2 of this SSE series discuss radicals, antioxidants and antioxidant supplementation and potential pros and cons for their use by endurance athletes.

Reference Article

SSEs #137 &138: Endurance Exercise and Antioxidant Supplementation: Sense or Nonsense? - Parts 1 & 2 SSEs #137 &138: Endurance Exercise and Antioxidant Supplementation: Sense or Nonsense? - Parts 1 & 2

SSE #136: Using Nutrition and Molecular Biology to Maximize Concurrent Training

Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and powerlifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, as the frequency and intensity of endurance training increases, the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength is slowed. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. The concurrent training effect can be explained at the molecular level, in part by the fact that metabolic stress (increased AMPK and SIRT1 activities) can inhibit the activation of mTOR and muscle hypertrophy. By understanding the importance of mTOR in the development of muscle mass and strength, the time course of mTOR activation, and then role of nutrition in mTOR/AMPK/SIRT1 activation, a simple training and nutritional plan can be developed to maximize strength and endurance.

Reference Article

SSE #136: Using Nutrition and Molecular Biology to Maximize Concurrent Training

SSE #134: Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability to Promote Training Adaptation

Exercise-nutrient-interactions promote or inhibit the activities of a number of cell signaling pathways and can modulate training adaptation. Manipulating carbohydrate (CHO) availability is common practice for athletes training for endurance-based sports. Low CHO availability can be achieved by consuming a chronically low CHO diet, twice-a-day training sessions in which CHO is withheld between workouts, overnight fasting, prolonged training and restricting or postponing CHO intake during the session, or delaying CHO intake during recovery from endurance training. There is no clear evidence that current “train-low” strategies enhance the capacity to undertake high-intensity training or improve athletic performance. Practical strategies to manipulate carbohydrate availability and future areas of research are discussed.

Reference Article

Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability to Promote Training Adaptation

SSE #123: Nutrition and the Molecular Response to Strength Training

Both strength training and eating a meal rich in amino acids independently result in an increase in protein synthesis. Strength and muscle mass gains with training can be improved by optimizing nutrition. The increase in protein synthesis in both cases is dependent on a protein kinase called the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Strength training and amino acid ingestion (eating) activate mTOR in different ways. As a result, when both are done together, the effects add up and result in a larger effect than either strength training or eating alone. Proteins that result in a rapid and prolonged (~1 hour) increase in the amino acid leucine in the blood maximize the activation of mTOR and the increase in muscle protein synthesis and strength. A simple nutritional strategy is presented that can be used to maximize the adaptive response to strength training.

Reference Article

Nutrition and the Molecular Response to Strength Training

SSE #122: Sodium Ingestion, Thirst and Drinking During Endurance Exercise

Hypertension is a serious medical condition and most medical scientific organizations recommend low or moderate sodium diets to the general population in order to reduce the risk of high blood pressure. Regular physical activity also reduces the risk of hypertension. Athletes lose sodium in sweat during exercise. The amount of sodium that is lost during endurance exercise depends on the sweating rate and the concentration of sodium in the sweat. In turn, sodium loss during exercise depends on individual factors, such as genetics, fitness and heat acclimatization, as well as the type, intensity and duration of exercise and the external environment. Given the loss of sodium in sweat, low sodium diets are not recommended for individuals who participate in long-term aerobic exercise. Sodium ingestion during or following endurance exercise will help to stimulate thirst and drinking as well as stimulate fluid retention by the kidney. Athletes should still monitor their blood pressure as they do their general health because no athlete is immune to hypertension. This is particularly important for older athletes, athletes with a genetic predisposition to hypertension, stroke or other cardiovascular disease. Strategies regarding hydration and sodium ingestion are discussed.

Reference Article

Sodium Ingestion, Thirst and Drinking During Endurance Exercise

SSE #120: Recovery Techniques for Athletes

Recovery is becoming increasingly important to the high-performing athlete in a bid to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Common recovery techniques utilized by athletes include hydrotherapy, active recovery, stretching, compression garments and massage. Recovery is a relatively new area of scientific research and in the previous 5-10 years, there has been a significant increase in research examining both the effects of recovery on performance and potential mechanisms. Practical recovery strategies and future areas of research are discussed.

Reference Article

SSE #120: Recovery Techniques for Athletes

SSE #119: Effects of Dietary Constituents on Cognitive and Motor Skill Performance in Sports

Cognitive performance, and motor skill performance are important determinants of success in many sports. Many dietary constituents have been purported to benefit acute cognitive and motor skill performance in athletes. Many of these constituents lack scientific support in athletes or sport-specific cognitive/motor skill tests. Various constituents and areas where more research is necessary are evaluated.

Reference Article

Effects of Dietary Constituents on Cognitive and Motor Skill Performance in Sports

SSE #118: Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse: Performance Effects and Mechanisms

Carbohydrate feeding during moderate intensity endurance exercise is well known to delay fatigue and improve performance. The mechanisms behind the benefits of provision of exogenous carbohydrate are thought to involve maintenance of blood glucose levels and carbohydrate oxidation rates and sparing of liver, and perhaps, muscle glycogen. A growing number of studies have now shown that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate-containing solution is associated with improved high intensity endurance exercise performance of 2-3%. Brain imaging studies have identified areas of the brain activated when carbohydrate is in the mouth, and it is likely that mouth rinsing carbohydrate results in afferent signals capable of modifying motor output. Practical implications and areas of future research are discussed.

Reference Article

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse: Performance Effects and Mechanisms

SSE #117: Protein Ingestion Prior to Sleep: Potential for Optimizing Post-Exercise Recovery

Dietary protein plays a key role in facilitating the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. Dietary protein ingestion immediately post-exercise increases muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rates in the acute stage of recovery. During an overnight sleep, MPS rates are low even with post-exercise dietary protein ingestion. Practical suggestions in regards to ingestion of dietary protein prior to sleep may provide an effective dietary strategy to support MPS, the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise and further improve exercise training efficiency.

Reference Article

Protein Ingestion Prior to Sleep: Potential for Optimizing Post-Exercise Recovery

SSE #116: Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep

Sleep plays an important role in health and performance and various nutritional interventions may enhance sleep quality and quantity. Some nutritional interventions may enhance sleep by exerting effects on neurotransmitters involved in the sleep wake cycle. Other nutritional interventions, including consuming high glycemic foods, consuming solid meals vs. liquid, and intake of certain other substances prior to bedtime may enhance sleep. Various practical nutrition interventions are presented that can be used to positively impact sleep.

Reference Article

Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep

SSE #115: New Ideas About Nutrition and the Adaptation to Endurance Training

Classic endurance training increases the number of blood vessels and the mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle, with the largest changes occurring in type I fibers. Since most skeletal muscles are ~50% type I and 50% type II fibers, increasing the power/velocity at lactate threshold to a greater extent could be achieved by increasing the mitochondrial volume and number of blood vessels in type II fibers. Increasing the activity of PGC-1α, a protein that has been called the master regulator of increased mitochondria and blood vessels, is a way to achieve this in type II fibers. A simple nutritional strategy is presented that can be used to maximize this adaptive response to endurance training.

Reference Article

New Ideas About Nutrition and the Adaptation to Endurance Training

SSE #114: Nutritional Recommendations to Avoid Gastrointestinal Complications During Exercise

Many athletes suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) problems that may impair performance or recovery from exercise. These GI problems vary widely across athletes and symptoms may occur in both the upper and lower GI tract. The three primary causes of GI symptoms are physiological, mechanical and nutritional. Nutritional training and appropriate nutrition choices can reduce the risk of GI discomfort during exercise by assuring rapid gastric emptying and absorption of water and nutrients, and by maintaining adequate perfusion of the splanchnic vasculature. This article also discusses nutritional strategies to reduce the risk of GI symptoms during exercise.

Reference Article

Nutritional Recommendations to Avoid Gastrointestinal Distress During Exercise

SSE #113: Sleep and the Elite Athlete

Sleep is essential for athletes and sleep disturbances can occur both during training and following competition. The impact of sleep deprivation on athletic performance may vary based on the type of exercise or sport the athlete participates in. This article discusses methods to improve sleep and potentially athletic performance.

Reference Article

Sleep and the Elite Athlete

SSE #111: Assessing Hydration in the Laboratory and Field

The body has several methods of thermoregulation, one of which is evaporation via sweating. During exercise, sweating is the primary method for the human body to dissipate heat to maintain core body temperature. Dehydration can occur as a result of long-term sweating in the absence of fluid replacement, impacting the ability of the body to dissipate heat. Plasma sodium concentration and plasma volume can be impacted by dehydration as well as the osmolality of fluids consumed. This article discusses the benefits and limitations of assessing the various aspects of hydration in laboratory and field settings.

Reference Article

Assessing Hydration in the Laboratory and Field

SSE #110: Dietary Nitrate: The New Magic Bullet?

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important physiological signaling molecule that can modulate skeletal muscle function through its role in the regulation of blood flow, muscle contractility, glucose and calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis. This article examines the impact of nitrate supplementation during various forms of exercise on performance, dosages, and sources of dietary nitrate.

Reference Article

Dietary Nitrate: The New Magic Bullet?

SSE #109: Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?

Muscle protein synthesis is regulated by two main anabolic stimuli, food intake and physical activity. Food intake, or rather protein ingestion, directly elevates muscle protein synthesis rates as does physical activity. This article examines the potential muscle building and performance benefits to consuming protein during exercise.

Reference Article

Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?

SSE #108: Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates and Their Benefits

During prolonged exercise, the performance benefits of carbohydrate ingestion may be achieved by maintaining plasma glucose concentration and high rates of carbohydrate oxidation. Studies demonstrated up to 65% higher exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates of multiple transportable carbohydrates (glucose:fructose) during exercise compared with a single carbohydrate (e.g., glucose only). Studies also demonstrated reduced fatigue and improved exercise performance with multiple transportable carbohydrates compared with a single carbohydrate. This article focuses on multiple transportable carbohydrates, ingestion rates, and when their use is most beneficial to athletes.

Reference Article

Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates and Their Benefits

SSE #107: Protein Consumption and Resistance Exercise: Maximizing Anabolic Potential

Protein turnover, the concurrent process of muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown, allows the muscle fiber to change its protein structure if loading demands or diet changes. Protein consumption and resistance exercise are both potent stimulants of muscle protein synthesis. Strategies can be implemented to maximize muscle hypertrophy based on these stimuli.

Reference Article

Protein Consumption and Resistance Exercise: Maximizing Anabolic Potential