Published

January 2017

Author

Lindsay B. Baker, PhD

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Topics

SSE #120

Shona L. Halson

January 2014

Topics: Recovery

SSE #118

Asker E. Jeukendrup, Ian Rollo and James M. Carter

December 2013

Topics: Carbohydrate

SSE #116

Shona L. Halson

October 2013

Topics: Recovery

SSE #113

Sleep and the Elite Athlete

Although the function of sleep is not fully understood, it is generally accepted that it serves to recover from previous wakefulness and/or prepare for functioning in the subsequent wake period. An individual’s recent sleep history therefore has a marked impact on their daytime functioning. Restricting sleep to less than 6 h per night for four or more consecutive nights has been shown to impair cognitive performance and mood (Belenky et al., 2003), disturb glucose metabolism (Spiegel et al., 1999), appetite regulation (Spiegel et al., 2004) and immune function (Krueger et al., 2011).

Shona L. Halson, PhD

May 2013

Topics: Recovery

SSE #112

Exercise, Nutrition and the Brain

Physical activity has been associated with the reduction of a number of physical and mental disorders. There is now ample evidence that physical activity will decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease, colon and breast cancer and obesity, but also diseases such as Alzheimer’s, depression and anxiety (Gómez-Pinilla, 2011; Van Praag, 2009).

Romain Meeusen, PhD

May 2013

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #111

Assessing Hydration in the Laboratory and Field

According to Eric Klinenberg’s book Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago, “the loss of human life in hot spells in summer exceeds that caused by all other weather events combined, including lightning, rain, floods, hurricanes and tornadoes” (Klinenberg, 2002).

Nina S. Stachenfeld, PhD

February 2013

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #110

Dietary Nitrate: The New Magic Bullet?

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important physiological signaling molecule that can modulate skeletal muscle function through its role in the regulation of blood flow, muscle contractility, glucose and calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis.

Andrew M. Jones, PhD

January 2013

Topics: Training & Performance, Supplements

SSE #109

Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?

Allowing muscle protein synthesis rates to increase during exercise training may facilitate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training and improve training efficiency.

Luc J.C. van Loon, PhD

January 2013

Topics: Training & Performance, Protein

SSE #108

Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates and Their Benefits

During moderate intensity exercise carbohydrate and fat are the two important fuels and their relative contribution is dependent on a number of factors including the pre-exercise carbohydrate stores, the exercise intensity and duration and the training status of the subject (Jeukendrup, 2003).

Asker E. Jeukendrup, PhD

January 2013

Topics: Carbohydrate

SSE #107

Protein Consumption and Resistance Exercise: Maximizing Anabolic Potential

The processes of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB) occur concurrently. This constant protein turnover allows the muscle fiber to change its protein structure if loading demands or diet changes. The plasticity of skeletal muscle to respond to altered loading and contractile patterns is evidence of the capacity for remodeling that a fiber can undergo. It is quite well documented for example that mitochondrial content increases with endurance-type work.

Stuart M. Phillips, PhD

January 2013

Topics: Body Composition, Protein

SSE #106

SSE #97

Hydration Assessment of Athletes

This article reviews several clinical hydration assessment techniques for\r\ndetecting changes in hydration status, provides criteria for the most\r\naccurate and reliable methods, and offers application guidance for athletes\r\nand coaches. The most common assessment techniques include total body\r\nwater, plasma osmolality, urine osmolality and body mass. Plasma\r\nosmolality\r\nand total body water measurements are the best ways to assess fluid needs\r\nbut are technically difficult and not very practical. A more practical way\r\nfor athletes to monitor fluid needs is to 1) assess day-to-day body weight,\r\n2) monitor urine frequency and color and 3) pay attention to thirst.\r\nMaintaining a stable body weight, frequent, pale urination and occasional\r\nthirst are all indications of good body fluid balance. While any one of\r\nthese can be a sufficient monitor, attention to all three will provide\r\nbetter assurance for hydration status.

Samuel N. Cheuvront, Ph.D., Michael N. Sawka, Ph.D. FACSM

October 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #96

Herbs and Athletes

Although there is insufficient high-quality research to support the claims, there are many herbs marketed to help athletes achieve their goals. More research on herbs, health, and athletic performance is needed to better assess efficacy and safety. This article includes a table that highlights many of the herbs athletes may be interested in using with claimed benefits and examples of safety concerns. Sports professionals working with athletes can serve as sound resources for helping athletes find reputable information about herbs.

Susan Kundrat, MS, RD, LDN

October 2006

Topics: Supplements

SSE #95

Collapse in the Endurance Athlete

Collapse is perhaps the most dramatic of all medical problems affecting athletes. Though collapse can be seen in any athletic event requiring maximal exertion, it is most common in endurance events, such as marathons and triathlons. The incidence seems to increase as the race distance, temperature, and humidity increase (OÂ’Conner et al., 2003).

Robert Sallis, MD, FACSM

October 2006

Topics: Athlete Health

SSE #92

Dietary Water and Sodium Requirements For Active Adults

Optimal hydration requires the replacement of water and electrolytes based on individual needs. Physically active people who lose more than 2 liters of sweat in a day should make sure they are ingesting adequate amounts of water and salt.

W. Larry Kenney, Ph.D., FACSM

September 2006

Topics: Hydration & Thermoregulation

SSE #91

Scientifically Debatable: Is Creatine Worth Its Weight

Creatine is a commonly used supplement that could potentially benefit short high-intensity exercise or improve response to resistance exercise training. However, the performance and metabolic response to creatine ingestion is varied. Those starting with low muscle creatine levels are more likely to but don't always have the best response. Since creatine supplementation boosts performance in some individuals and not others, this could be construed as unfair advantage. Many questions remain about the value of creatine supplementation for performance of various sports and about how much and when to use creatine - if it should be used at all. Evidence suggests that performance benefits resulting from creatine ingestion are predominantly observed during multiple tests lasting between 30 to 90 seconds. Also, when consumed in moderate doses, there seems to be no adverse effects of creatine supplementation in healthy adults.

Eric S. Rawson, Ph.D., Priscilla M. Clarkson, Ph.D.

September 2006

Topics: Supplements

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