Genetics explain about 50 percent of performance outcomes, nutrition and other aspects of gene regulation also play important roles.
Predicting an individual's response to nutrition is challenging, since scientists need to account for both the genetic variation of the athlete and the gut biome.
The dietary nitrates in beet root juice alter running economy and cycling efficiency to help improve performance.
Halson explains why sleep is important for sports performance.
Halson explains how too little sleep and sleep extensions affect performance.
Genetics attempts to link DNA variations to performance. Transcriptomics takes into account DNA and environmental factors, making it easier to detect differences in performance.
In the future, genomics may be able to help athletes personalize their training approach and predict injury-related responses.
If their goal is to increase muscle mass, athletes may want to train later in the day. This timing may associate their training with their largest intake of amino acids. Relaxing at night will also help to decrease metabolic stress, which impairs adaptations to training.
Endurance training will increase aerobic capacity, while strength training will increase muscle mass and alter the functionality of connective tissue.
During exercise fat stored in the muscle and adipose tissue supplies energy, so the type of dietary fat doesn't matter for performance. However, good health saturated fats should be limited and omega-3 fatty acids encouraged.
Sugar and salt, along with water and flavor, are the key components of a sports drink. Carbohydrates, including sugars, provide fuel and salt helps replace sweat losses.
Powerlifters are stronger than bodybuilders due to their type of training program.
The biological mechanism for muscle gain is exactly the same for powerlifters and bodybuilders.