Course Offerings

Sleep in Elite Athletes and Rest in the NBA
Nutrition for Marathon Running
American Football Taskforce webinar
SSE #153: Heat Acclimatization to Improve Athletic Performance in Warm-Hot Environments
SSE #152: Hydration & Aerobic Performance: Impact of Environment
SSE #150: Dietary Assessment Methods for the Athlete: Pros and Cons of Different Methods
SSE #148: The Importance of Vitamin D for Athletes
SSE #147: Vitamin D Measurement & Supplementation: What, When, Why & How?
SSE #140: Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sports Performance
SSE #139: Physiological Adaptations to Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training
SSEs #137 &138: Endurance Exercise and Antioxidant Supplementation: Sense or Nonsense? - Parts 1 & 2
SSE #136: Using Nutrition and Molecular Biology to Maximize Concurrent Training
SSE #134: Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability to Promote Training Adaptation
SSE #123: Nutrition and the Molecular Response to Strength Training
SSE #122: Sodium Ingestion, Thirst and Drinking During Endurance Exercise
SSE #120: Recovery Techniques for Athletes
SSE #119: Effects of Dietary Constituents on Cognitive and Motor Skill Performance in Sports
SSE #118: Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse: Performance Effects and Mechanisms
SSE #117: Protein Ingestion Prior to Sleep: Potential for Optimizing Post-Exercise Recovery
SSE #116: Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep
SSE #115: New Ideas About Nutrition and the Adaptation to Endurance Training
SSE #114: Nutritional Recommendations to Avoid Gastrointestinal Complications During Exercise
SSE #113: Sleep and the Elite Athlete
SSE #111: Assessing Hydration in the Laboratory and Field
SSE #109: Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?
SSE #108: Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates and Their Benefits
SSE #107: Protein Consumption and Resistance Exercise: Maximizing Anabolic Potential
SSE #96: Herbs and Athletes
SSE #95: Collapse in the Endurance Athlete
SSE #94: Creatine, Carbs, and Fluids: How Important in Soccer Nutrition?
SSE #91: Scientifically Debatable: Is Creatine Worth Its Weight?
SSE #90: Diabetes, Exercise and Competitive Sports

CONTINUING EDUCATION

The Gatorade Sports Science Institute is pleased to offer continuing education credits on a wide variety of subjects of interest to the sports health professional.

Our online tests are designed to provide you with current, relevant and practical information authored by experts in the fields of exercise physiology and sports nutrition.

How Do I Earn CE Credits?
  • Login or Register
  • Select a test to take.
  • Take your test.  You must answer all questions correctly to pass the test and apply for credits.
  • Print your certificate
  • Keep the certificate for your records and submit it to ACSM, BOC, CDR, CSCCa, NASM, or USA Cycling Coaching Association at the time of your certification.

Sleep in Elite Athletes and Rest in the NBA

Cheri Mah, a sleep research scientist, discusses current research related to sleep and performance in elite athletes. The webinar includes sleep challenges athletes face, the impact sleep can have on performance as well as practical strategies to improve sleep. A particular focus is given to the NBA and the role that sleep and game schedules can play on performance. 





          

Nutrition for Marathon Running

Professor Asker Jeukendrup discusses race-day Nutrition for Marathon Runners. The webinar includes a historical perspective on nutrition practices of marathoners as well as the current research around nutrition and performance. A particular focus is on practical nutrition strategies for before, during and after a marathon.





          

American Football Taskforce webinar

A recorded version of the nutrition in sport: American Football webinar is now available. Hear from the authors of the American Football series of SSEs as they highlight a variety of topics related to sports science and American Football. Watch the full 2 hour webinar to receive 2 units of continuing education for ACSM, CDR or the BOC.





      

SSE #153: Heat Acclimatization to Improve Athletic Performance in Warm-Hot Environments

Heat acclimatization (acclimation) occurs when repeated exercise-induced heat exposures are sufficiently stressful to invoke profuse sweating and elevate whole-body temperature. Biological adaptations to heat acclimation include reduced physiological strain, improved comfort, improved exercise capacity and a reduction in risk of serious heat illness during exposure to heat stress. Practical strategies to induce heat acclimation are discussed.

Reference Article:
SSE #153: Heat Acclimatization to Improve Athletic Performance in Warm-Hot Environments



          

SSE #152: Hydration & Aerobic Performance: Impact of Environment

When sweat rates are high, ad libitum fluid intake is often not adequate to full replace sweat losses. This can result in cumulative body water deficits (Hypohydration) that can negatively impact aerobic performance, particularly in warm-hot environments. Hypohydration occurs at a body water deficit of >2% body mass loss. Mechanisms behind impaired aerobic performance are discussed.

Reference Article:
SSE #152: Hydration & Aerobic Performance: Impact of Environment



          

SSE #150: Dietary Assessment Methods for the Athlete: Pros and Cons of Different Methods

The ability to collect dietary information can be a challenge for healthcare professionals working with athletes. This may be due to time constraints, education, or compliance on the part of the athlete. Understanding the habits and dietary intake of the athlete is important to supporting overall athletic health and performance. This course will help the healthcare professional determine which method of dietary assessment, if any, is appropriate to use with a given athletic population.

Reference Article:
SSE #150: Dietary Assessment Methods for the Athlete: Pros and Cons of Different Methods



          

SSE #148: The Importance of Vitamin D for Athletes

Vitamin D plays an important role in an athlete's health, training and performance. Including vitamin D status, measured as blood 25(OH)D concentration, as part of a routine nutritional assessment is recommended. This course discusses the implications of vitamin D deficiency on health as well as athletic performance, discusses food sources of vitamin D as well as supplementation, and the factors that increase the risk of an athlete presenting with Vitamin D deficiency.

Reference Article:
SSE #148: The Importance of Vitamin D for Athletes



            

SSE #147: Vitamin D Measurement & Supplementation: What, When, Why & How?

Vitamin D is associated with numerous important biological actions relevant to the athlete including regulating bone health, immune function, cell cycle and skeletal muscle homeostasis. Athletic populations show markedly poor vitamin D concentrations, particularly during the winter months. This course discusses the importance of vitamin D related to health and athletic performance, as well as discusses potentially supplementation strategies to improve circulating 25(OH)D levels.

Reference Article:
SSE #147: Vitamin D Measurement & Supplementation: What, When, Why & How?



          

SSE #140: Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sports Performance

To succeed in team sports, players must have endurance, strength, speed and power, as well as a range of sport-specific skills that can be executed accurately and rapidly during competition. Team-sport players spend about half of their time performing low- to moderate-speed running from which they are able to perform multiple sprints to support scoring opportunities or to prevent the opposition from scoring. Unlike traditional endurance sports in which athletes run, cycle or swim in one direction, team-sport players have to constantly change direction as well as make rapid changes in pace. The distances covered and the number and frequency of directional changes are largely unpredictable and vary with each team sport and even between playing positions in each sport. To cope with the demands of training and competition, the nutrition of players has to be designed to cover their energy expenditures as well as sustain good health. Central in nutritional planning for team-sports players is the quantity and type of carbohydrate in their diets because of the essential contribution made by this macronutrient to energy metabolism during high-intensity exercise.

Reference Article:
SSE #140: Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sports Performance



          

SSE #139: Physiological Adaptations to Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is generally characterized by repeated sessions of brief, intermittent exercise, typically at intensities that elicit ≥85% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. While long appreciated by endurance athletes as an integral component of training programs designed to maximize performance, short-term studies lasting up to several weeks in healthy persons of average fitness have established that HIIT per se is a potent stimulus to induce physiological adaptations that resemble changes typically associated with traditional endurance training, despite a lower total exercise volume and reduced training time commitment. The majority of low-volume HIIT studies conducted to date have utilized relatively short intervention periods (i.e., lasting up to several weeks) and future work involving long-term (i.e., months to years) interventions is needed to advance our mechanistic understanding of how manipulating the exercise stimulus translates into physiological remodeling, as well as identifying from a practical perspective the minimum “dose” of HIIT to maximize adaptation, given that lack of time remains the most commonly cited barrier to lack of regular exercise participation.

Reference Article:
SSE #139: Physiological Adaptations to Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training



          

SSEs #137 &138: Endurance Exercise and Antioxidant Supplementation: Sense or Nonsense? - Parts 1 & 2

Free radicals are a natural production of muscle contraction in active skeletal muscles, with the magnitude of production increasing with exercise intensity and duration. Antioxidants, endogenous and exogenous, form a cooperative network of protection against radical-mediated cellular damage as a result of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Part 1 and Part 2 of this SSE series discuss radicals, antioxidants and antioxidant supplementation and potential pros and cons for their use by endurance athletes.

Reference Article:
SSEs #137 &138: Endurance Exercise and Antioxidant Supplementation: Sense or Nonsense? - Parts 1 & 2

SSEs #137 &138: Endurance Exercise and Antioxidant Supplementation: Sense or Nonsense? - Parts 1 & 2

            

SSE #136: Using Nutrition and Molecular Biology to Maximize Concurrent Training

Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and powerlifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, as the frequency and intensity of endurance training increases, the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength is slowed. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. The concurrent training effect can be explained at the molecular level, in part by the fact that metabolic stress (increased AMPK and SIRT1 activities) can inhibit the activation of mTOR and muscle hypertrophy. By understanding the importance of mTOR in the development of muscle mass and strength, the time course of mTOR activation, and then role of nutrition in mTOR/AMPK/SIRT1 activation, a simple training and nutritional plan can be developed to maximize strength and endurance.

Reference Article:
SSE #136: Using Nutrition and Molecular Biology to Maximize Concurrent Training



          

SSE #134: Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability to Promote Training Adaptation

Exercise-nutrient-interactions promote or inhibit the activities of a number of cell signaling pathways and can modulate training adaptation. Manipulating carbohydrate (CHO) availability is common practice for athletes training for endurance-based sports. Low CHO availability can be achieved by consuming a chronically low CHO diet, twice-a-day training sessions in which CHO is withheld between workouts, overnight fasting, prolonged training and restricting or postponing CHO intake during the session, or delaying CHO intake during recovery from endurance training. There is no clear evidence that current “train-low” strategies enhance the capacity to undertake high-intensity training or improve athletic performance. Practical strategies to manipulate carbohydrate availability and future areas of research are discussed.

Reference Article:
SSE #134 Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability to Promote Training Adaptation



          

SSE #123: Nutrition and the Molecular Response to Strength Training

Both strength training and eating a meal rich in amino acids independently result in an increase in protein synthesis. Strength and muscle mass gains with training can be improved by optimizing nutrition. The increase in protein synthesis in both cases is dependent on a protein kinase called the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Strength training and amino acid ingestion (eating) activate mTOR in different ways. As a result, when both are done together, the effects add up and result in a larger effect than either strength training or eating alone. Proteins that result in a rapid and prolonged (~1 hour) increase in the amino acid leucine in the blood maximize the activation of mTOR and the increase in muscle protein synthesis and strength. A simple nutritional strategy is presented that can be used to maximize the adaptive response to strength training.

Reference Article:
SSE #123: Nutrition and the Molecular Response to Strength Training



          

SSE #122: Sodium Ingestion, Thirst and Drinking During Endurance Exercise

Hypertension is a serious medical condition and most medical scientific organizations recommend low or moderate sodium diets to the general population in order to reduce the risk of high blood pressure. Regular physical activity also reduces the risk of hypertension. Athletes lose sodium in sweat during exercise. The amount of sodium that is lost during endurance exercise depends on the sweating rate and the concentration of sodium in the sweat. In turn, sodium loss during exercise depends on individual factors, such as genetics, fitness and heat acclimatization, as well as the type, intensity and duration of exercise and the external environment. Given the loss of sodium in sweat, low sodium diets are not recommended for individuals who participate in long-term aerobic exercise. Sodium ingestion during or following endurance exercise will help to stimulate thirst and drinking as well as stimulate fluid retention by the kidney. Athletes should still monitor their blood pressure as they do their general health because no athlete is immune to hypertension. This is particularly important for older athletes, athletes with a genetic predisposition to hypertension, stroke or other cardiovascular disease. Strategies regarding hydration and sodium ingestion are discussed.

Reference Article:
SSE #122: Sodium Ingestion, Thirst and Drinking During Endurance Exercise



            

SSE #120: Recovery Techniques for Athletes

Recovery is becoming increasingly important to the high-performing athlete in a bid to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Common recovery techniques utilized by athletes include hydrotherapy, active recovery, stretching, compression garments and massage. Recovery is a relatively new area of scientific research and in the previous 5-10 years, there has been a significant increase in research examining both the effects of recovery on performance and potential mechanisms. Practical recovery strategies and future areas of research are discussed.

Reference Article:
SSE #120: Recovery Techniques for Athletes



          

SSE #119: Effects of Dietary Constituents on Cognitive and Motor Skill Performance in Sports

Cognitive performance, and motor skill performance are important determinants of success in many sports. Many dietary constituents have been purported to benefit acute cognitive and motor skill performance in athletes. Many of these constituents lack scientific support in athletes or sport-specific cognitive/motor skill tests. Various constituents and areas where more research is necessary are evaluated.

Reference Article:
SSE #119: Effects of Dietary Constituents on Cognitive and Motor Skill Performance in Sports



          

SSE #118: Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse: Performance Effects and Mechanisms

Carbohydrate feeding during moderate intensity endurance exercise is well known to delay fatigue and improve performance. The mechanisms behind the benefits of provision of exogenous carbohydrate are thought to involve maintenance of blood glucose levels and carbohydrate oxidation rates and sparing of liver, and perhaps, muscle glycogen. A growing number of studies have now shown that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate-containing solution is associated with improved high intensity endurance exercise performance of 2-3%. Brain imaging studies have identified areas of the brain activated when carbohydrate is in the mouth, and it is likely that mouth rinsing carbohydrate results in afferent signals capable of modifying motor output. Practical implications and areas of future research are discussed.

Reference Article:
SSE #118: Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse: Performance Effects and Mechanisms



          

SSE #117: Protein Ingestion Prior to Sleep: Potential for Optimizing Post-Exercise Recovery

Dietary protein plays a key role in facilitating the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. Dietary protein ingestion immediately post-exercise increases muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rates in the acute stage of recovery. During an overnight sleep, MPS rates are low even with post-exercise dietary protein ingestion. Practical suggestions in regards to ingestion of dietary protein prior to sleep may provide an effective dietary strategy to support MPS, the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise and further improve exercise training efficiency.

Reference Article:
SSE #117: Protein Ingestion Prior to Sleep: Potential for Optimizing Post-Exercise Recovery



          

SSE #116: Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep

Sleep plays an important role in health and performance and various nutritional interventions may enhance sleep quality and quantity. Some nutritional interventions may enhance sleep by exerting effects on neurotransmitters involved in the sleep wake cycle. Other nutritional interventions, including consuming high glycemic foods, consuming solid meals vs. liquid, and intake of certain other substances prior to bedtime may enhance sleep. Various practical nutrition interventions are presented that can be used to positively impact sleep.

Reference Article:
SSE #116: Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep



            

SSE #115: New Ideas About Nutrition and the Adaptation to Endurance Training

Classic endurance training increases the number of blood vessels and the mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle, with the largest changes occurring in type I fibers. Since most skeletal muscles are ~50% type I and 50% type II fibers, increasing the power/velocity at lactate threshold to a greater extent could be achieved by increasing the mitochondrial volume and number of blood vessels in type II fibers. Increasing the activity of PGC-1α, a protein that has been called the master regulator of increased mitochondria and blood vessels, is a way to achieve this in type II fibers. A simple nutritional strategy is presented that can be used to maximize this adaptive response to endurance training.

Reference Article:
SSE #115: New Ideas About Nutrition and the Adaptation to Endurance Training



          

SSE #114: Nutritional Recommendations to Avoid Gastrointestinal Complications During Exercise

Many athletes suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) problems that may impair performance or recovery from exercise. These GI problems vary widely across athletes and symptoms may occur in both the upper and lower GI tract. The three primary causes of GI symptoms are physiological, mechanical and nutritional. Nutritional training and appropriate nutrition choices can reduce the risk of GI discomfort during exercise by assuring rapid gastric emptying and absorption of water and nutrients, and by maintaining adequate perfusion of the splanchnic vasculature. This article also discusses nutritional strategies to reduce the risk of GI symptoms during exercise.

Reference Article:
SSE #114: Nutritional Recommendations to Avoid Gastrointestinal Distress During Exercise



            

SSE #113: Sleep and the Elite Athlete

Sleep is essential for athletes and sleep disturbances can occur both during training and following competition. The impact of sleep deprivation on athletic performance may vary based on the type of exercise or sport the athlete participates in. This article discusses methods to improve sleep and potentially athletic performance.

Reference Article:
SSE #113: Sleep and the Elite Athlete



        

SSE #111: Assessing Hydration in the Laboratory and Field

The body has several methods of thermoregulation, one of which is evaporation via sweating. During exercise, sweating is the primary method for the human body to dissipate heat to maintain core body temperature. Dehydration can occur as a result of long-term sweating in the absence of fluid replacement, impacting the ability of the body to dissipate heat. Plasma sodium concentration and plasma volume can be impacted by dehydration as well as the osmolality of fluids consumed. This article discusses the benefits and limitations of assessing the various aspects of hydration in laboratory and field settings.

Reference Article:
SSE #111: Assessing Hydration in the Laboratory and Field



          

SSE #109: Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?

Muscle protein synthesis is regulated by two main anabolic stimuli, food intake and physical activity. Food intake, or rather protein ingestion, directly elevates muscle protein synthesis rates as does physical activity. This article examines the potential muscle building and performance benefits to consuming protein during exercise.

Reference Article:
SSE #109: Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?



            

SSE #108: Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates and Their Benefits

During prolonged exercise, the performance benefits of carbohydrate ingestion may be achieved by maintaining plasma glucose concentration and high rates of carbohydrate oxidation. Studies demonstrated up to 65% higher exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates of multiple transportable carbohydrates (glucose:fructose) during exercise compared with a single carbohydrate (e.g., glucose only). Studies also demonstrated reduced fatigue and improved exercise performance with multiple transportable carbohydrates compared with a single carbohydrate. This article focuses on multiple transportable carbohydrates, ingestion rates, and when their use is most beneficial to athletes.

Reference Article:
SSE #108: Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates and Their Benefits



          

SSE #107: Protein Consumption and Resistance Exercise: Maximizing Anabolic Potential

Protein turnover, the concurrent process of muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown, allows the muscle fiber to change its protein structure if loading demands or diet changes. Protein consumption and resistance exercise are both potent stimulants of muscle protein synthesis. Strategies can be implemented to maximize muscle hypertrophy based on these stimuli.

Reference Article:
SSE #107: Protein Consumption and Resistance Exercise: Maximizing Anabolic Potential



            

SSE #96: Herbs and Athletes

Herbs have a long history of use and it is conceivable that some may have health benefits for athletes and non-active people alike. This article reviews research, published in English on herbs used by athletes for the purpose of obtaining general health benefits and improvement in exercise performance.

Reference Article:
SSE #96: Herbs and Athletes



        

SSE #95: Collapse in the Endurance Athlete

Exercise-associated collapse is a relatively common occurrence in endurance events, especially those occurring in high heat and humidity. Collapse while exercising is usually more serious especially when the athlete has unstable vital signs or an altered level of consciousness. Early diagnosis is essential so that proper treatment can be initiated.

Reference Article:
SSE #95: Collapse in the Endurance Athlete



      

SSE #94: Creatine, Carbs, and Fluids: How Important in Soccer Nutrition?

There is no persuasive evidence that creatine supplementation is beneficial to soccer play. Because most of the running in soccer is at less than maximal speed, it is unlikely that creatine supplementation would have any important benefits. However, adequate dietary carbohydrate in the days and hours before strenuous training and competition is critical to maintaining adequate glycogen level in the muscles. Also, even slight dehydration can be detrimental to impair performance in soccer.

Reference Article:
SSE #94: Creatine, Carbs, and Fluids: How Important in Soccer Nutrition?



    

SSE #91: Scientifically Debatable: Is Creatine Worth Its Weight?

Creatine is a commonly used supplement that could potentially benefit short high-intensity exercise or improve response to resistance exercise training. However, the performance and metabolic response to creatine ingestion is varied. Those starting with low muscle creatine levels are more likely to but don't always have the best response. Since creatine supplementation boosts performance in some individuals and not others, this could be construed as unfair advantage. Many questions remain about the value of creatine supplementation for performance of various sports and about how much and when to use creatine - if it should be used at all. Evidence suggests that performance benefits resulting from creatine ingestion are predominantly observed during multiple tests lasting between 30 to 90 seconds. Also, when consumed in moderate doses, there seems to be no adverse effects of creatine supplementation in healthy adults.

Reference Article:
SSE #91: Scientifically Debatable: Is Creatine Worth Its Weight



    

SSE #90: Diabetes, Exercise and Competitive Sports

Regular exercise is highly recommended for many people who have either Type 1 DM or Type 2 DM diabetes. During exercise there is a rapid uptake of glucose from the blood and people with diabetes must adjust their pre-exercise insulin dosage and carbohydrate intake, before, during and after exercise. The benefits of regular exercise in people with diabetes are similar to those in persons without the disease as long as the diabetic is in good glucose control and has no major complications of the disease.

Reference Article:
SSE #90: Diabetes, Exercise and Competitive Sports